Illegal immigration has become a core issue among people to debate. People migrate under pressure of increased unemployment and poverty. Some people cross the border illegally, few seek asylum, and some enter state with proper documentation and stay after the expiration of their visa. This study is conducted to determine how close borders can reduce illegal immigration.
Qualitative research is conducted to determine whether policies made by federal government producing intended results. Federal govt has devised a policy to start prosecution of criminal activity for every individual who crosses the border illegally. The Federal government also making databases to digitalize border, which would help in keeping track of invaders identity. These databases have helped the state in gathering data by taking fingerprint and information while applying for a visa. This study will help readers to determine new ways of stopping illegal immigration.
Illegal immigration has become the main issue among people to debate. Estimates are 4-13 million people living in the US without having proper documentation. This estimated number of 4-13 million has not changed in ten years. People from third world countries usually migrate to earn bread and butter for their family and to have a good future. They migrate to work, so there is a notion that they take jobs from Americans (Pevnick, 2009).
Discussion on illegal immigration suggests that instead of a large number of people contradicting from public policy, it poses a threat to our security, social order, and safety. No proper status of their immigration has placed people to a perilous position in society. Most people migrate to prevent poverty and escape from depression; this urge brings migrants to the US. The main question is “how close border can help in preventing illegal migration.” Although the arguments mentioned above are not made obvious, and it comprises with reference to poor economic conditions in third world countries along with population pressures and increased unemployment.
Majority of American neighbor countries are poor or lack economic stability; it indicates that a large number of illegal immigrants will be flooded to America. On presentation of combined information of American immigrants and population growth of southern border depicts that we are already being inundated with illegal immigrants.
Massive retaliation is linked with the process of policy for controlling illegal immigrants. To control illegal invasion requires the policymakers to control two main categories. It includes the crossing of borders without proper inspection or authority and visa violators (Lahav & Guiraudon, 2006). Visa violator are individuals, who obtain a visa for tourism and come will all documents. Individuals with student visa also fall in this category, who break terms and condition of visa and work and stay even after the expiration of their visa.
Border control is of utmost importance in controlling illegal immigrants entering the US. Complete control of the border is possible as per principle. If we take an example of the US-Mexican border, most part of this border is desert. It is difficult to cross desert as it is open, it can easily be monitored or police using aerial equipment. Most of the invasion occurs in an urban area due to the lack of border control force. According to a study, the police force of Capitol Hill is larger than total force appointed to control intruders on borders. Current primeval and unorganized operations of illegal immigration have become difficult to manage alone with 24 international migration resources. To implement massive control on illegal immigrants, require extensive modification in the immigration process.
Locus of entry has changed due to the escalation in technology and organizational efforts on the other side of the border (Lahav, & Guiraudon, 2006).
Although, currently border patrol is inexpensive, and it would become expensive with time with the digitalization of border. Avoidance of human rights is another cost that must be paid in controlling border control. Illegal immigration can be controlled easily if well-conceived policy and implementation of organizational structure are done with ease instead of panic. Expulsion policy for invaders has given importance to bodies appointed for internal control on illegal immigrants. These bodies face difficulty in taking any action against them, due to no connection of their legal entities and with no history in the immigration process (Pevnick, 2009).
Digitalization of borders
Illegal immigrants are connected to three different types of immigration history. They might cross a border illegally with or without the help of local persons. Few people came and claimed asylum and stayed after the rejection of their claim. America and other European countries have developed a database for immigration to identify the invaders, who caught on borders or inside the countries.
This database helps controlling authorities to reidentify invaders caught on borders. This step facilitating countries to control illegal immigrants to enter again. Visa information system and Schengen information system are a few examples of these databases (Düvell, 2005). Illegal immigration doesn’t involve registration of invaders, but these databases help in registering individuals caught on borders or inside. Individuals who seek asylum also registered in these databases. Tourists, students or ones who visit their relatives also registered in these databases.
Immigration process has allowed Europeans to travel in member states; it accompanied with control measures that are drug trafficking, border control, illegal immigration, and police control. SIS database is another example that stores information relating to illegal immigrants caught red-handed and information on other objects that includes stolen cars and passports information. These databases are commonly used for order and security, but its main purpose is to control illegal immigrants (Kukathas, 2005).
A large amount of individual information stored on databases is of illegal immigrants. After its successful implementation, another version of the SIS database is introduced, whose purpose is to accommodate circumstances that have changed. These databases also help to determine, whether the asylum seeker has applied for this option in any other member state. Illegal immigrants look for ways to enter developed countries. Therefore they follow asylum seekers and become the most problematic illegal immigrant.
A resolution was passed to capture fingerprints of all illegal immigrants and share it with other countries to control such invaders. Few databases don’t incorporate fingerprints therefor other systems are used to take the fingerprint of invaders. This system also helps in identifying illegal immigrants, who hide their identity. If he applies for asylum in other countries, then his information and origin of the country can be determined. These bureaucratic procedures also help authorities to control illegal immigrants (Düvell, 2005).
Identity control has helped immigration authorities expelled invaders into their origin countries. They have made compulsory for all visa seekers to register in the visa information system using their fingerprints. This system also captures information of individual or company, who is supporting or bearing their cost of the stay. It shows that capturing information of company and family who invite them will help in tracing illegal immigrants. Who entered with a proper visa and then overstayed. These databases act as technical borders for illegal immigrants in comparison with territorial borders (Kukathas, 2005).
These databases accumulated form a net for detection and identification of all immigrants entering in different countries for any reason. It depends on its usage in different departments like immigration office, police departments and other departments who have access to it. It also has some limitation that increased information stored in these databases will help in its implementation in controlling illegal immigrants or not. According to a survey few people have molded their fingerprints to become unidentifiable. Most people don’t go into identity routes to hide their identity. This has made human trafficking a growing industry.
Tightening the NET; Policies in practice
Homeland security department of America has introduced a new policy to control over illegal immigrants who cross borders. Criminal prosecution will be initiated for all those adults, who will try to enter in the US as an illegal immigrant. Another order was issued to prosecutors to take maximum cases under this policy for proper implementation of policy. This policy will have a huge impact on border operations and on federal courts.
Although the policy is formulated to control illegal immigration, it’s difficult to determine whether it would bring desired results or congress members should have prepared themselves for unintended results. According to the immigration and nationality act, the offender of crossing borders illegally can subject to prison for six months. This policy also arose a debate of its impact of families detained by border force. Children will be separated from their parents because of their prosecution and will be moved to the health department to place them in the least restrictive setting (Flores, 2003).
According to this rule, parents will be detained in prison to wait for their term in federal court, whereas children will be placed with other families in different settings. Separating children from parents has brought the attention of human rights advocates and immigrants. Regulators are not considering unintended consequences of this policy, that is clogging up federal courts with misdemeanors. Another practice is seen that authorities do not give punishment to illegally invaders unless they are also involved in some other criminal activities of a human and drug trafficking (Flores, 2003).
Federal prosecutors and department of law and justice are reluctant in piling up courts with illegal immigrants and for other crimes that do not fall on criteria. The policy of restricting illegal immigrants has another disadvantage of putting unnecessary strain on official borders and ports that are being used for the import and export sector. Most invaders are using ports entry points to enter America and seek asylum because it would not impose with the prosecution of criminal activity due to the applicability of policy on the territorial border.
According to research, the vast majority of families do not try to escape detection process, rather they look for officer and ask entering them to the asylum process (Hanson, & Spilimbergo, 1999). Generally, these families are a skeptic for a proper place to cross the border.
Recently detention facilities were made to restrict individuals entering America. A large number of migrants was approaching to these authorities for asylum due to fear. Mexico is a security partner in controlling illegal immigrants to enter in America, and they are unfamiliar with these measures.
Before enforcement of policy for illegal immigrants following points is needed to be considered. They need to make contingency plans as a large number of people will approach to port that is an economic hub for commerce and tourism. Guidelines need to be given to federal court like what prosecution will help in minimizing people to cross the borders illegally. HHS department would be provided of resources to handle separated children.
We can conclude that the policy effectiveness of the federal government has improved over the years. The capacity of federal govt in detecting and detaining illegal immigrants has improved. Development of a digital border has also increased state capacity of detecting illegal immigrants. Formal labor markets are also being closed for these invaders. Documentation of individuals with fingerprints while applying visa will help states to close these routes for illegal immigrants. Digitalization of border is also helpful in assessing people in their network along with identification of invader’s identity. It will also help the state to intervene in making strategies to control illegal immigrants from hiding their identities and use of migration networks.
- Düvell, F. (Ed.). (2005). Illegal immigration in Europe. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Flores, L. A. (2003). Constructing rhetorical borders: Peons, illegal aliens, and competing narratives of immigration. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 20(4), 362-387.
- Hanson, G. H., & Spilimbergo, A. (1999). Illegal immigration, border enforcement, and relative wages: Evidence from apprehensions at the US-Mexico border. American Economic Review, 89(5), 1337-1357.
- Kukathas, C. (2005). The case for open immigration. Contemporary debates in applied ethics, 207-220.
- Lahav, G., & Guiraudon, V. (2006). Actors and venues in immigration control: Closing the gap between political demands and policy outcomes. West European Politics, 29(2), 201-223.
- Pevnick, R. (2009). Social trust and the ethics of immigration policy. Journal of Political Philosophy, 17(2), 146-167.