Abortion refers to a deliberate attempt to terminate a pregnancy resulting in the death of the fetus. Once a pregnancy has been conceived, it is usually expected that the mother will carry the pregnancy to term since many people see the fetus as a living being. Countries such as Canada have adopted to pro-abortion policies, and it has received backlash from particular sectors of the global society that feel abortion should not be encouraged.
In my opinion this is a very broad ethical issue because everybody has a different view and opinion. Some may see it as murder and others think abortion is a good option in some scenarios. I believe that woman should be free to do whatever they feel is right to a certain extent. I do not think it is right for woman to use abortions as birth control but on the other hand if a woman gets pregnant by accident and she is not ready to have a baby I do believe it is appropriate to abort the baby. I also hold the opinion that having a choice should be encouraged since society should not be allowed to make such decisions for the women especially when it comes to what they want to do with their body.
The discussion is based on the premise that abortion needs to be a choice that is available for pregnant woman. While understanding the policies adopted by Canada with regard to abortion, it is critical to focus on aspects such as ethical theories, bioethical principles, legal considerations, and professional expectations for nurses.
In trying to understand whether abortion should be allowed it is vital to focus on various ethical theories. The country has been termed as a progressive country as it pro-abortion and has ensured that the healthcare sector adopts policies that protect the patient population. Virtue ethics theory can be used to explain the adoption of pro-abortion policies. The theory states that abortion should be considered based on its ability to adhere to established rules (Schröder-Bäck, Duncan, Sherlaw, Brall & Czabanowska, 2014).
The dilemma experienced in the country can be dealt with by focusing on whether each abortion adheres to established principles. In a situation where the abortion is conducted as per the established rules it will be termed as ethical. The rules also need to focus on ensuring the fetus and the mothers are protected. The pro-abortion policies in Canada state that abortion should be allowed in situations where it helps promotes overall wellbeing. Under virtue ethics the country would also need to consider the outcomes associated with enforcing the pro-abortion policies.
The pro-abortion policies adopted in Canada have to be considered based on ethical theories such as deontology. The morality of the pro-abortion policies has to be considered on the basis of the good or evil that it is able to generate based on the established legal framework. The pro-abortion policies can be termed as ethical in situations where it results in more good compared to adverse outcomes.
Additionally, the concept of abortion in Canada is termed as ethical in situations where it adheres to established regulations (Leon Correa, 2013). Nurses and doctors in Canada who follow deontology will perform an abortion even if they do not think it will lead to the best outcome just because they know it is their duty and they are obligated to. Canada has come up with comprehensive rules meant to ensure that individuals are not forced by social pressures to keep pregnancies that do not promote social, physical or mental wellbeing. Any abortion that is procured in Canada will be seen as moral if it is conducted as per the rules.
By respecting the principle autonomy, it would mean that, “a capable and competent individual is fee to determine, and to act in accordance with a self-chosen plan (Beauchamp & Childress, 2013). In other words, women should be given the right to make their own decisions about abortion. In nursing, it is critical to establish a criterion to be followed in establishing the merit or morality of particular medical procedures. Based on the established criteria, a procedure such as abortion would have to be subjected to four categories; justice, non-maleficence, autonomy, and beneficence.
For abortion to be viewed as ethical, it needs to adhere to all of those parameters. Under the concept of autonomy, the focus is on ensuring the patients are allowed to exercise free will as they make the decision on abortion. It is important for the pregnant mother to be focusing on her overall wellbeing while taking part in the process (Erdman, Grenon & Harrison-Wilson, 2008). The decision should not be coerced, and as health care providers it is difficult to treat patients with procedures we do not agree with but every individual should be treated with respect and remain their dignity. As professionals it is our job to provide comprehensive information to pregnant mothers so that they can make informed decisions. Additionally, they should not provide information in a manner that seeks to either promote or discourage abortion.
Beneficence is a principle that promotes people to do good and having a beneficial outcome. Under the concept of beneficence , the pregnant mother is required to weigh the adverse outcomes against the expected positive results. The mother is expected to make the decision based on the expectations of the process (Erdman, Grenon & Harrison-Wilson, 2008). For example, the mother might decide to take part in abortion if she is not in a position to cater to the needs of the child. This will result in a situation where the mother can live a better life after abortion (Dunn & Cook, 2013). In a situation where abortion is likely to result in adverse effects, it will be avoided. On the other hand, a situation where the medical practitioner thinks that abortion will be safe, they are obligated to advise the patient. In beneficence, the focus is on ensuring particular medical procedures are geared toward the common good. In Canada, the focus is on protecting women and would continue to be promoted under the concept of beneficence (Leon Correa, 2013). The adoption of abortion in Canada is meant to guarantee that patients are protected.
Client’s choice is something that the CNO believes is very important, it is one of their 7 ethical values. Having an abortion all comes down to what the client wants so us as health care providers must accept their decision as well as keeping confidentiality. Considering abortion in Canada, it would be critical to focus on the development of CNO in relation to the pro-abortion policies. There are particular nursing standards that can be used to help in dealing with the issues of abortion. CNO has to be considered in terms of accountability, ethics, knowledge application, and relationship when it comes to abortion and its procedures. The medical practitioners have to adhere to ethical principles while dealing with pregnant mother that would like to take part in abortion (Dunn & Cook, 2013).
This means the professionals have to apply the theoretical concepts gained during the learning process to offer the best advice to the clients. In terms of accountability, every nurse is required to meet the CNO requirements and standards when providing care. In Canada, the CNO puts importance on professional standards and therapeutic nurse-client relationship. The nurses need to possess knowledge on all aspects of abortion, and they should form a positive relationship with the patient and keep their personal opinion out of the procedures.
“NAF Canada works to ensure that abortion is safe, legal, and accessible, which promotes health and justice for woman” (National Abortion Federation). Various legal statutes to support abortion have been adopted to ensure that pregnant mothers are allowed an opportunity to decide what they want to do with their bodies.
The most prominent statute that legalized abortion is the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1969. However, it was only in place if a doctor thought continuing the pregnancy would cause more harm than good to the woman’s body. The law has been improved over time to guarantee that the needs of the current population have been a priority. Over time the nation has had to adopt more laws such as those that state a child can seek an abortion without consulting the parents. I believe that other counties around the world should consider legalizing abortion for the reason that the NCBI mentions that there are 20 million unsafe abortion procedures done annually resulting in roughly 68,000 deaths.
The concept of abortion has continued to elicit mixed reactions as particular groups feel that it should be promoted while others feel it should not be a part of society. Canada is a country that has been pro-abortion and continues to provide individuals with the right to their own bodies and the right to make their own decisions regarding pregnancy and I believe that Canada is currently doing an exceptional job at withholding this right.