I have chosen Zambia as a country of my choice basically it’s a nice country and its very interesting. Indeed I am going to give the role of policy in such way that the community are using natural resources and the way their manage it. The Government of Zambia and stakeholders in the environment and natural resources management (ENRM) sector acknowledge the environmental challenges facing Zambia moreover the challenges facing Zambia people were over using resources in their own benefit. They government therefore has put in place several policies, structures and programmes such as the national conservation strategy of 1985, the National Environmental Action Plan (1994), the Environmental and Pollution Control Law, among others, to ensure environmental sustainability in the country.
long back most of the African country before colonization people were utilse resources in a suitable way after the colonization due to technology evolution for instance mining which is good for several purpose in the other hand its really affect the community and it has a critical impact within the society. So to deal with issues the government has come up with policy. Basically I am going to describe the main natural resources and the reason why government come up with the policy.
Indeed policy is a rules set up within an organization or region with the aim to bring order. Furthermore policy within the country lead to the conservation of resources for instance National parks gvt have set up a policy whereby if you wants to enter first of all you have to pay money to enter and other policy as visitor you are not allow to kill animals within the Parks but if you kill you will pay a penalty. Indeed the role of this policy is to conserve natural resources and well manage.
Picture of Environmental Policy in Zambia
In fact to get a clear picture of environmental policy in Zambia what is all about? First of all The National Policy on Environment, was developed on 25 May to safeguard the environment and to ensure the sustainable use of natural resources. The main purpose of the policy is to create an umbrella policy for the welfare of the Nation’s environment so that socio-economic development will be achieved effectively without damaging the integrity of the environment or its resources.
However as human being we are getting direct or indirect benefit from the resources which is within the environment .for instance let say ,forest management we know that forest is habitat of species whereas the gvt can make a policy which says that no one can cut down trees unless if he/she have been allow by the people in change of conservation indeed if they find you cutting down trees or killing animals you will be arrested and they will put you in prison
Agricultural Policy in Zambia
Agriculture is one of the important pillars of Zambia economy. Agricultural policy is generally designed by the Government to raise agricultural production and productivity and also to upgrade the level of income and standard of living of farmers within a definite time. The first being the 2004-2015 National Agricultural Policy. Its focused on improving production in the Agriculture sector within this we find fisheries, crops production.
During the first NAP period, production increased significantly in all the agricultural sub-sectors as revealed in Situational Analysis, however, there was minimal improvement in productivity. The launch of the Second National Agricultural Policy 2016-2020 seeks to address the challenges faced during the implementation of the First NAP. For instance the challenge could be the climate change whereby to do Agriculture we needs to clear the land by cutting down trees in this could bring the impact within the community such soil erosion, soil degradation however the purpose of the new launch of the policy was just to make sure what they have got challenge in the first so that they may improve.
The Second NAP has shorter duration of 5 years compared to the First NAP that ran for 12 years. The shorter duration conforms to standard policy durations of 5 years, further, the reduced time periods provides for better monitoring and evaluation. The Second NAP focuses on productivity, strengthening training, promoting markets (inputs and outputs), private sector participation, and nutrition and food security.
The National Forestry Policy was developed in 1998 to replace the previous Forestry Policy, which was last revised at independence because it was seen as having too many constraints for effective forest management and for the utilization of resources. The Policy was developed at the same time as the Zambia Forestry Action Programme with the aim of turning the forestry sector into a dynamic and vibrant sector by boosting employment in the sector and increasing the sustainable use of forestry resources.
As such, the goals of the policy are to improve forest management systems and to formulate and implement appropriate forest policies and programmes for the sustainable management and use of forest resources. The promotion of participatory management structures involving local communities is included in the policy as a means of achieving sustainable forest management. The Policy was developed by the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources which is since early 2012 known as the Ministry of Lands, Natural Resources and Environmental Protection (MLNREP).
Policy which was adopted in 2009 and launched in 2010. The Policy covered both issues of Trade and Industrial development. The policy was aimed at developing an enabling economic environment in the country which supported private investments, enabled the development of domestic productive capacities, and contributed to the expansion of Zambia’s international trade. The Industrial component of the CTI policy anticipated an expanding manufacturing sector base and diversification of the economy. This policy focuses on eight Manufacturing sub-sectors as priority drivers of industrialization. The priority sub-sectors are as follows:
- Processed Foods;
- Textiles and Garments;
- Engineering Products;
- Wood and Wood products;
- Leather and Leather Products;
- Mineral (metallic and non-metallic) processing and products (beneficiation);
- Pharmaceuticals; and
- Blue Economy
To conclude Zambia is endowed with an abundance of natural resources that include, water, forests and wildlife. The country’s wildlife resources are managed through government-supported National Parks and Game Management Areas (GMAs) and private sector game ranches. The main objective of this wildlife sector policy review is to consolidate the findings collected from an extensive bibliography published during the life of the current policy, and the analysis of key sector practitioners. The second objective is to analyze these findings with a view to formulating broad recommendations to inform the design of the new vision and new policy of the sector.
- Chileshe, Anne. 2001. Forestry Outlook Studies in Africa: Zambia. Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/004/AC428E/AC428E00.pdf (accessed 22 April 2010)