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Updated November 22, 2020

Multiculturalism in Indonesia and Australia

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Multiculturalism in Indonesia and Australia essay
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Multiculturalism means fostering a virtuous community where society of all culture, ethnicities, and races see their cultural uniqueness reflected and affirmed in every phase of congregational life – fellowship, worship, religious, leadership, education, governance, social justice, etc. Multiculturalism means that we create virtuous homes where meetings between people of different cultural personalities meet with Unitarian universalist to create a wholly comprehensive community where, in the words of a vision statement accepted by the Unitarian Universalist Association’s (UUA) Leadership Council, “all people are greeted as blessings and the humanoid family survives whole and reconciled.”

Multiculturalism means that one cultural identity does not rule all new identities, that individuals are able to join in their reliance community deprived of negating or walloping their cultural identities, that the role of cultural identity is part of prophetic and pastoral ministry; and that leaders have the ability to know how their numerous identities and socialization effect their attitudes, interactions, beliefs, values, behaviors, and with others (Hussain, A., Miller, W., 2006).Multiculturalism means:

  • Comfortable each other into common community;
  • Welcome the countless ways that individuals express, define and experience the respect and divine what is considered holy in our varied cultures;
  • Understand public observe and all societal justice effort as ministry in partnership with societies to make the world more equitable and compassionate, just a place that is nurturing, fair, supportive, and safe for all people;
  • Support communities and individuals in their search for truth and meaning—and a sense of aliveness—in their quest to make a positive difference in the world;
  • Offer common aid and ease through life’s challenges in such a ways that meet everyone’s personal, as well as cultural needs;
  • Identify that there are various cultural languages (symbols, words and act) that visible in fellowship, worship, pastoral care, etc.

Acknowledgement can take the procedures of recognition of contributions to the social life of the radical community as a whole, a call for special security under the law for definite cultural groups, or self-ruling rights of authority for definite cultures. Multiculturalism is a reaction to the fact of cultural multiplicity in modern equalities and a way of reimbursing cultural groups for previous discrimination, oppression and exclusion. Recent democracies involve participants with varied cultural practices, contributions and viewpoints. Several minority cultural groups have practiced exclusion or the disparagement of their contributions and individualities in the past. Multiculturalism pursues the presence of the opinions and contributions of varied members of culture while upholding respect for their changes and suppression the demand for their integration into the leading culture (Wiley, 2016).

Multiculturalism stands as a challenge to generous democracy. In liberal democracies, all peoples should be treated in the same way under the law by selecting the common individuality of “citizen” from the actual cultural, economic, social and political positions and individualities of actual affiliates of society, which leads to a propensity to standardize the collective of peoples and assume a mutual political culture. However, that theoretical view overlooks other administratively salient features of the individualities of political subjects that surpass the category of citizen such as religion, sex, race, and class. Though demanding the proper equality of citizens, the generous democratic view inclines to underemphasize means in which peoples are not equal in society (Collins, (2019).

Some more essential multicultural philosophers have requested that some cultural groups want more than gratitude to confirm the integrity and maintenance of their different individualities and contributions. In addition to citizen’s equal rights, few have encouraged for diverse group rights and self-ruling governance for definite cultural groups. Because, the constant presence of protected minority cultures eventually gives to the good of all and the enhancement of the leading culture, those philosophers have debated that the preserving of cultures that cannot resist the forces to assimilate into a leading culture that can be given preference over the normal standard of equal human rights for all (Voyer, A., 2016).

Few examples of how multiculturalism has affected the political and social spheres are originate in amendments of curricula, North America Curricula from the basic to the university levels were reviewed and extended to include the contributions of marginal and ignored cultural groups (Modood, T., 2007).

There are two main objections to multiculturalism. One is that it privileges the good of the definite groups over the common good, so possibly eroding the public good in favor of a minority interest. The second one is that it weakens the idea of equal individual rights, thus flagging the political importance of equal treatment. (Hanurawan, F., Waterworth, p. ,2011)

Multiculturalism raises other different questions. There is the question of which culture will be recognized. Some theorists anxious that multiculturalism can lead to a rivalry between cultural groups all competing for recognition and this will further strengthen the supremacy of the leading culture. Further, an emphasis on cultural group individuality may lessen the capacity for coalitional political activities that might grow across differences. Some socialist and activist thinkers have expressed worry about the thinning of other main changes shared by affiliates of a society that do not essentially involve a shared ( Eagan, J. ,2019).

No, Australia is not a successful multicultural nation. As we have studied that Australia is a mono-cultural society or core cultural society. Australian culture is built on Anglo-Christian culture. They rejoice Christian leave and events. Their society is to celebrate and remember severely Australian occasions that are important to them (Nolan, D., Farquharson, K., Politoff, V., Marjoribanks, T., 2011).

However, various diverse races built An Australia, they are incredibly Multiracial. They embrace their Chinese, their Indian, their Irish brother, and many more.In doing this, they identify those groups cultures. They have Chinese New Year’s , they know Diwali and Ramadan.The Australian society does not celebrate those holidays, or command their customs, but as a lenient multiracial society, they hold them and try to make the other competitions feel included.Therefore, when commentators, mainly Left arm bleeding hearts start saying they require to be extra multicultural, it becomes their back up. The individuals have come to Australia because they feel their culture and manner of life is somewhat that they will enjoy. It is not for them to decide that they will today modify their culture to support them feel more at home.If people need Sharia law, then possibly Saudi Arabia is a well fit for them.If they need time off to request 5 times a day, possibly Turkey is a well fit for them.If they wish everyone have guns, possibly America is well fit for them.

Being a multi-religious and multi-ethnic nation that also hosts Muslim community (the leading Muslim residents in the world), Indonesia require maintaining nonviolent existence between cultures or values in the society. As a new democracy, Indonesia is also facing the test if multiculturalism creates an obstacle and opportunity in developing self-governing culture.

Indonesia is a huge archipelago covering more than 17000 islands that covers a population around 255 million people. An Indonesia is the fourth most populated nation in the world. These remarkable numbers also suggest that important linguistic , ethnic ,culture and religious diversity can likely to be found within its boundaries, reaching from the regular Hindu customs experienced on the island of Bali to the occurrence of Islamic sharia law in Ache (Sumatra) or the semi- nomadic stalker gatherer existences of the Mentawai people (Unitarian Universalist Association, 2019).

Furthermore, previously a general outline put upon them and the several areas practiced distinct economic and political histories, which still express in the present local dynamics. Indonesia’s general saying Bhinekka Tunggal Ika refers to the diversity in the country’s inner composition but also specifies that, even with all changes in its diverse culture, there is a correct sense of agreement among the individuals of Indonesia (Tate, J., 2009).

This Culture division of Indonesia Investments has aim to provide the person who reads with important background evidence on Indonesia with respect to disciplines. This will meaningfully improve individual’s understanding of the nation. Understanding of cultural aspects and nation-particular dynamics are important for maintainable and positive investments or when affecting to another country either for private or business reasons. This is particularly valid to Indonesia with its vast cultural multiplicity and complexity (Hoon, C. , 2013)

Indonesian culture is different from the Australian culture as there is various different experiences, hierarchies, notion of time, belief-systems, religion, spatial relations and many more. Even in Indonesia itself, there exists a multiple of cultures. (Asian dynamic initiative, 2014). This makes Indonesia an interesting and complex country. Australian cultures have same experience, religions and hierarchies. Indonesia has various cultures but still there people have unity among them which is not seen in Australian culture even they do not have multiplicity of cultures. Indonesia is different from Australia in politics, economics, religions and population.

The development of Indonesia’s united home economy was not a natural and quick process but rather an artificial and long one, formed mostly by forces from foreign autocrats and then ended in the national state of Suharto’s New Instruction regime. Religion plays an essential role in Indonesian culture and in the everyday lives of the people. Indonesia is the nation with the major Muslim population in the world but it also comprises masses of people that follow to other foremost world religions as well as traditional animist faith systems. The economic performance and demographic structure of a country generally have a fundamental relationship. The youth population would usually suggest a possibly huge workforce while a large mid-aged people would normally suggest a possibly large customer force (Aragon, Lorraine v., 2010).

Australia is free from discrimination of any culture but in Indonesia, there are various cultures and due to this reason, there is discrimination of culture sometimes. Australians see various people of various cultural backgrounds and skin color appearance from very young age and they are able to accept, adapt and embrace. The cultural or ethnic environment of Australia is energized, lively, outward looking and innovative. The aboriginal culture in Australia is completely fascinating (Springer, 2013).

Although both Indonesia and Australia are multicultural countries, multiculturalism refers to a variety of dissimilar cultures existing together in Indonesia. Multiculturalism mainly means many individuals with dissimilar colored looks living together in Australia. The Australian government powerfully supports strategies of migrants sustaining their identities, but in exercise, these individualities left behind far more quickly than is understood in Indonesia (Poynting, S., 2008).

The dissimilar cultural personalities of offspring of Chinese emigrants in each nation give some ideas or thoughts in respects to how plans and policies of multiculturalism have affected citizens. Fourth and fifth age group offspring of Chinese emigrants have succeeded to preserve their homeland’s culture and their individuality as Chinese in Indonesia. Wedding between Chinese and Indonesian is rare. By the second and third generation, the Chinese individuality generally been battered in Australia. The marriage between the Chinese offspring and a dissimilar group is common. Briefly, in Indonesia, Chinese emigrants and their offspring have had a propensity to sheath themselves. They have united in Australia (Pearson, L., 2018).

It concluded that Multiculturalism is that in which different identities of one culture does not rule all other new cultural identities that person or citizen of nation able to join in their reliance society. Both the nations (Indonesia and Australia) have multiculturalism, but at some point they differ in their culturalism, that is politics, economics and populations. Indonesia has covered many regions and islands in it so their cultures are also different from Australian culture. Australian culture does not discriminate their citizens based on color complexion but in Indonesia, there is various types of identities live together so sometimes it happens in Indonesia that discrimination has done based on color complexion.

The culture of Indonesia is different from the culture of Australia as there are different religions, hierarchies, notion of time, experiences, belief-systems, spatial relations and many more. The development of Indonesia is not quick process than the development of Australia due to various cultures and regions. Australian culture built on Anglo- Christian, they considered Christian events, and Indonesia is more multicultural as they contain many cultures like Muslims, Hindu, and Christians and so on. Though Indonesia has diverse cultures as many citizens belong to different cultures but there individuals show some unity in their cultures which is not seen in Australian cultural. Now Australia is also working hard for being multicultural nation in the world.

References

  1. Aragon, Lorraine v., (2010). Multiculturalism: some lessons from Indonesia. [Online] Available at: https://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/multiculturalism-some-lessons-indonesia
  2. Asian dynamic initiative, (2014). Multiculturalism in Indonesia today. [Online] Available at: https://asiandynamics.ku.dk/english/activities/calendar/archive/azra/
  3. Collins, (2019). Multiculturalism. [Online] Available at: https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/multiculturalism
  4. Eagan, J. (2019). Multiculturalism. [Online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/topic/multiculturalism
  5. Hanurawan, F., Waterworth, p. (2011) multicultural perspective in Indonesian social studies education curriculum, Education, (4) 266-267.
  6. Hoon, C. (2013). Between evangelism and multiculturalism: The dynamics of Protestant Christianity in Indonesia, Social compass, 60(4) 457-470.
  7. Hussain, A., Miller, W. (2006). Multiculturalism nationalism. UK: Oxford university press.Modood, T. (2007). Multiculturalism. 2nd ed. Malden: Wiley.
  8. Nolan, D., Farquharson, K., Politoff, V., Marjoribanks, T. (2011). A new era in Australian multiculturalism, Intercultural studies, 32(6) 655-671.
  9. Pearson, L (2018). Australia is not a multicultural country. [Online] Available at: https://indigenousx.com.au/australia-is-not-multicultural/
  10. Poynting, S. (2008). Multiculturalism in Australia. UK: Wheelers.Springer (2013) multiculturalism and diversity. [Online] Available from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/9780230391147_10
  11. Tate, J. (2009). “Nation” : multiculturalism, citizenship and identity, politics and amp, 55(1) 97-120.
  12. Unitarian Universalist Association, (2019). What is multiculturalism? [Online] Available at: https://www.uua.org/multiculturalism/introduction
  13. Voyer, A. (2016). Multiculturalism. [Online] Available at: http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199756384/obo-9780199756384-0167.xml
  14. Wiley, (2016). Multiculturalism. [Online] Available at: https://scholar.google.co.in/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=multiculturalism&oq=multicul

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