# Branch of Mathematics – Geometry

• Updated February 18, 2022
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Geometry is all around us-from the orbit of the Moon’s repeating pattern to the complex forms found in a spiderweb. Of course, ancient people saw these things and many more, and they came up with rules to measure and explain what they saw. Geometry is the mathematics branch that studies each other’s shapes and relationships.

More than 5000 years ago, in the valley of the Nile river, we know that Egyptian scholars were already using the principles of geometry to survey land and construct complex structures like the great pyramids. Even before this time, people in various parts of the world used basic geometrical ideas to map their lands and construct their homes. In fact, the word ‘geometry’ comes from the Greek word geometrein, meaning Earth measuring. Although it has evolved to include many types of more abstract measurements, geometry arose from these early measurement systems. Because the study of geometry arose from the simple observations and measurements, it developed independently in many cultures in the ancient world. Some of the most famous early forms of geometry were developed in Greece, India, and China.

Geometry has come a long way since first being introduced. Geometry is the branch of mathematics concerned with the properties and relations of points, lines, surfaces, solids, and higher dimensional analogs. It all started back in the ancient Egyptian days. Have you ever wondered where the name even came from? Well it comes from two Greek words, “ge” meaning “earth” and “metria” meaning “measuring.” The approach to Geometry developed by the Ancient Greeks has been used for over 2000 years as the basis of geometry. Ancient Egyptians used an early stage of geometry in several ways, including the surveying of land, construction of pyramids, and astronomy. Around 2,900 BC, ancient Egyptians began using their knowledge to construct pyramids with four triangular faces and a square base. The geometrical evolution is pretty complex, I hope this helps you better understand.

The next major advance in geometry came from Euclid in 300 BC when he wrote a document called ‘ Elements.’ In this text, Euclid presented an perfect axiomatic form (now known as Euclidean geometry) in which proposals could be proved by a small set of statements proved to be true. In fact, Euclid was able to derive from the first five postulates in Elements a large portion of planar geometry.

Geometry evolved and still has been evolving throughout the past, present, and will in the future. The greeks took a large part in geometry. The Pythagoras spoke the pythagorean theorem into existence. The Indian culture contributed by the writers of the Sulba Sutras developed a method for calculating the mathematical constant pi, estimated the square root of two, and wrote down the earliest known statement of what would later come to be known as the Pythagorean theorem hundreds of years before Pythagoras was even born! Thales contributed in the Early developments in geometry, including work on similar and right triangles. Aristotle developed logic and deductive reasoning.

Geometry is one of the classical disciplines of math. At around the 3rd century BC, Euclid turned the study of geometry into an axiomatic form, and these axioms are still useful to this day. When Rene Descartes was able to create the concept of analytical geometry, an important evolution was created for the geometry science. Moreover, the rise of perspective resulted in projective geometry. Modern geometry now has strong physical connections and is an vital part of new physical concepts such as relativity and theories of string. The most basic form of geometry is the so-called euclidean geometry. In addition, geometry can be used to calculate the volume of 3 dimensional objects such as cubes, cylinders, pyramids, and spheres. It used to be all about shapes and measurements, but numbers are going to make their way to geometry soon. Numbers are introduced in geometry in the form of numerical values of lengths and areas thanks to the Pythagoreans. Geometry has many practical uses in real life, from the most basic phenomena to the most advanced in life.

Additionally, geometry plays a role in basic engineering projects. In determining the proper design of a specific house, building or vehicle, a thorough knowledge of geometry will help them a lot. These are some of the geometry’s most basic uses, but they don’t end there. In order to do their job properly, more careers use geometry. Geometry is also used for mapping purposes. They use geometry to accomplish their job, from sketching to calculating distances. As you can see, even in the most basic details of our lives, geometry affects us.

Geometry is important because there are geometric shapes in the world that God created. Snowflakes are six-sided figures, just as bees are made by honeycombs. The rainbow is a circular shape and there is a straight line with a light ray. In many fields, geometry has practical application.

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