DNA, or also known as deoxyribonucleic acid, a hereditary material in organisms, humans and many other organisms. Each cell in a human body has the same DNA. It has been found that DNA is located in the cell nucleus, but a very small amount of DNA is found in the mitochondria. The structure of the mitochondria is within cells that will change energy from food into a form cells that then can be used.
The DNA has information stored as a code and this made up of adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). A Humans DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people. This sequence shown has the information available for building and maintaining an organism.
The way recombinant DNA is used in technology has shown in products from genetically altered plants, animals and material that human use daily. In 1997, Dolly made waves as the first cloned sheep and made headlines for surviving, DNA is at the forefront of many similar advances in medicine, treatments for cancer; also advantages in agriculture. Growth hormones and transgenic animals which have received recombinant DNA are on the cutting edge of this new age medical transition.
An important property of DNA is that it can copy itself or replicate. Every strand of DNA that is apart of the double helix can serve as a pattern for duplicating the sequence of bases. This is important when cells are divided because each new cell needs to have an exact copy of the DNA present in the old cell.
Materials and Methods
This laboratory activity in will isolate and observe DNA from two different types of cells.
In this lab experiment, the following materials are needed:
- Colored Paper Ribbon
The main advantages of these tests are (1) the use of specimens easy to collect (self-sampled vaginal swab, first-catch urine, tampon samples).
First step, using a marker and paper to make labels for each part of the cell: Nucleus (1), DNA (1), Mitochondria (4 labels), Cell Membrane (1), and Membrane Receptors (6). Next is to cut lengths of ribbons as the DNA. Label all sections of the DNA. Before starting the laboratory activity, discuss facts about where DNA is found. DNA is found only inside of cells. There are ways DNA can be extracted from a cell. This would include breaking the cell wall into the nucleus. Furthermore, since nucleic-acid amplification tests are incredibly sensitive to even small amounts of viral DNA, they are very important for screening the blood supply. These tests make it possible to detect tiny amounts of HIV and other blood-borne pathogens that might otherwise be missed.
While routine laboratory diagnostic tests and specific antimicrobial agents are generally available for the treatment of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections, we are just entering the stage when rapid nucleic acid tests and a greater array of antiviral agents are available for tackling viral infections. The broad array of viruses worldwide causes substantial morbidity and mortality, ranging from respiratory viruses, arthropod-related viruses, to the most deadly blood-borne viruses. Novel emerging or reemerging viruses are causing major epidemics from time to time especially in densely populated areas where human populations have close contact with wild animals (wildlife markets) and food animals (wet markets and abattoirs).
Such epidemics such as the EVD can be explosive in countries with failed governance and poor health infrastructures. Currently, there is a lack of antiviral treatment for most of these infections. Therefore, prevention by implementing effective infection control and vaccination is of utmost importance to contain these viruses. The science of using living system is biotechnology. The is the domestication of plants and animals in the life of farming and even breeding practices are biotechnology.
People associate biotechnology with the changing an organism’s genetics to achieve a different trait through the process of genetic engineering. In genetic engineering it also involves recombinant DNA and technology. The whole process in which a DNA sequence is manipulated in vitro thus creating recombinant DNA molecules that have all new genetic material. The recombinant DNA is then introduced as a host organism.
If the DNA the introduced it comes from a different species, the host organism is now considered to be transgenic. There is an example of transgenic microorganism as aa bacterial strain that produces human insulin. There is an insulin gene that comes from humans and was inserted into a plasmid. The recombinant DNA plasmid was then inserted into bacteria
Then the results are these transgenic microbes that are now able to produce and secrete human insulin. Many prokaryotes are able to take in foreign DNA and incorporate as a functional gene into their own genome which is called mating. Mating with other cells or taking up DNA from the environment.
Discussion and Conclusion
DNA has two spiral strands and they wind around each other like a rope or chained ladder. Each line is made up of nucleotides: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). Each of these nucleotides are paired together: adenine with thymine and cytosine with guanine. These A-T and C-G pairs make up the rungs of the ladder. The gene is a long series of the four letters (nucleotides) that contains instructions for the cell to make a specific protein.
DNA has been called largest known molecule. This single unbroken strand can contain several million atoms. If DNA is released from the cell it then breaks up into little fragments. These small fragments will have a negative electric charge. DNA is known as the essential molecule to all living things. Yet not to viruses, there is a protection evolved from the cells. In order to extract DNA successfully, it is helpful to understand these protective mechanisms.
The DNA code is a simple yet profound message. When the functions of DNA ate the molecular level is examined this will require a closer look. With this you can only imagine what it will look like to magnify a very small part of a gene millions of times. DNA is a gigantic molecule which is a type of nucleic acid. This doubled helix is combined with two strands.
The simplest organisms do not have the protection of a nucleus; this group of organisms is called prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are common bacteria. The DNA of bacteria is all around in the group of cytoplasm and are protected from the viruses that may invade. This is done by the bacterial DNA in the methyl groups which has been attached and then prevents the restriction enzymes from cutting it. Bacteria have a relatively simple protection mechanism. When the organisms are more complex, so does the protection of their own DNA.
Eukaryotic organisms keep their DNA contained within a nucleus, protecting it from activities going on in the cytoplasm. Plants have the extra protection of a cell wall. All eukaryotes have DNA enzymes floating around in their cytoplasm that can cut DNA. In order to extract the DNA, it is necessary to denature, or breakdown, these enzymes before rupturing the nucleus. Heat or pH changes are often used to denature proteins and enzymes.