Philosophical Theories of Beliefs

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The Divine Command theory is in many peoples’ eyes viewed that mortality is depending on God. The moral obligation consists only if you obey God’s commands or requirements. The content is specified by a particular religion and particular views of these theorists of divine command. Although, all versions of theory are common when it comes to morality and moral obligations that depend on God ultimately. This theory is extremely controversial and always has been. Many struggle with this theory because they are still in the questioning stage wondering if God even exists. Others struggle with wondering if God requires something from them. A theist is someone who believes in the existence of a God. An agnostic is someone who neither believes in nor denies the existence of God. Theist’s have an easy time with the Divine Command Theory. Agnostic’s on the other hand are questioning this theory. They believe there is little to no evidence of God’s existence here on Earth. Many compare God to sea monsters or unicorns, since there is little or no evidence that either of those were ever existing.

Some advantages to this theory are that these rules can be applied to every and anyone, no matter the time or place. With the belief that God is eternal and that God will never change means that his commands are as relevant in present day today just as much as they were in the past. The commands of God don’t vary based upon what other people think is right and wrong. His purpose is his commands. If you follow God’s rules, you shall be rewarded. It is also believed that if you follow God’s commands he will bless you with eternal life and a spot in heaven. For those of the Christian faith, what God says in the Bible is secure and solid with multiple teachings of morality in every page.
Some disadvantages to this theory are there is only one religion that is right and the followers that go along with it are the only ones living a true life of morality. If you violate God, it is expected that you shall be punished, and you can not escape your punishment.


Utilitarianism begins from the premise that pleasure and happiness are innately valuable, and that pain and suffering are innately not valuable. Utilitarian’s believe highly in morally precise actions as long as it promotes the well being and happiness of a lot of people. Utilitarian’s reinforce equality. They decline any unpredictable differences as to who is virtuous and who is not. Nonetheless, it does allow the idea of diminishing insignificant utility.

Some disadvantages to utilitarianism are that an extended amount of time is needed to balance all of the evidence to reach a direct conclusion on the considerable costs and benefits of an effect. Utilitarians acknowledge that specific knowledge of consequences is sometimes unfeasible. It has been claimed that assessing and differentiating happiness throughout different populations is impractical not only in practice but also in theory. A highly definite argument against Utilitarianism has been settled onward on the grounds that determinism is either accurate or inaccurate. If it is accurate then we the people have no real ability over our actions. If it is inaccurate, then the outcome of our actions are unforeseeable. Not under any condition because they will trust in the actions of others who we can not express.

Some advantages to utilitarianism are that it is simple and based on the original principle of decreasing pain and increasing pleasure and happiness. A method which plans to create a happier life.it is easy to show and prove that Utilitarianism is proper and reasonable since its key principles are widely accepted. Utilitarianism correlates to behaviors that can be noticed in the real world. Utilitarianism has not been seen to need acknowledgement of any prior beliefs of religion, and its moral analysis’ which can then be recognized across different religions and cultures.
Deontology is the study of the nature of duty and obligation. Deontology is easy to administer. It demands that people follow the rules and do their jobs. This path tends to go along well with humans’ everyday intuition about what is honest or dishonest. An individual deed is considered properly good because of some distinctive characteristic of the deed itself, not because the result of the deed is good.

Some advantages to Deontology are the motivation is worth more over consequences which are far beyond our control. A dishonest purpose can not be condoned by unforeseen good consequences but a good purpose is worthy of value. Justice is always without limit. Even if the majority of people do not benefit from it. Deontology acknowledges the value with moral absolutes that do not change with time or culture.

Some disadvantages to Deontology are that moral obligations that appear whimsical or inexplicable except by mention to duty. In reality our decision making is influenced by much more factors. It is definitely questionable whether duty is even a good motive after all. Some often wonder how far good will or motive diminish a disastrous outcome. They question if they should even really be concerned with having to know the arrangement of honest, good behavior or should they know more about the content. Many are not satisfied with being told to do their duty without actually understanding or being told why.

Virtue Ethics

Virtue Ethics is person based instead of being action based. It more so looks into the integrity and moral character of a person accomplishing this action. Not only does Virtue Ethics deal with the good or bad actions of individuals but it gives us guidance to the type of traits a good person will look to accomplish. A virtue ethicist believes that an action is morally okay if a person who has all of these traits performs the same exact actions. This belief is useful because people are generally more intrigued in determining the good or bad of a specific deed. Virtue Ethics also advises that the was to build a functioning society is to help it community to be good people instead of using punishments in the law to avoid or avert bad deeds.

Some advantages to Virtue Ethics are that it drives us to work on honesty. Other theories do not promote that as much as this theory does. This theory does not rely on any other theories which shows self improvement. Virtue Ethics acknowledges that we are naturally willing to make good, positive decisions. This theory expects to want us to continue to build ourselves into better individuals for the future. We need to be independent rather than dependent. We need to have moral reasoning.

Some disadvantages to Virtue Ethics is that there is not one solid and to the point answer to what virtues are and what is supposed to be done in moral crisis. These advantages don’t differentiate between the right way to go about an ethical dilemma would be.

Although Virtue Ethics aims for making people become a better them and introducing good qualities in themselves, it doesn’t help when dealing with a dilemma ethically. Good reasoning could be foreseen as what is supposed to help defeat ethical conflict. It appears that in many opinions of those in society, the disadvantages exceed the advantages.


In conclusion, out of the four very important ethical theories, everyone usually finds one of these theories to categorize themselves under. Whether you believe solely off of religion and God’s words and virtues, or you believe strongly in consequences based upon your actions, or you believe in the duty of morals and motives, or you believe in the virtue of the agent who has all of the virtues to perform an action; these theories are so different from each other yet similar to each other that it is almost hard not to relate to them.


  1. Answers Ltd. “Analysis Of Divine Command Theory Philosophy Essay.” UKEssays, UK Essays, 22 Nov. 2018,
  2. Austin, Michael W. “Divide Command Theory.” Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, www.iep.utm.edu/divine-c/.
  3. “Deontology.” Ethics Unwrapped, ethicsunwrapped.utexas.edu/glossary/deontology.
    LaBossiere, Michael. “Ethics: Divine Command Theory.” YouTube, YouTube, 11 Feb. 2013, www.youtube.com/watch?v=LwpeL1ZQ0vk.

Cite this paper

Philosophical Theories of Beliefs. (2020, Nov 11). Retrieved from https://samploon.com/philosophical-theories-of-beliefs/

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