Parent involvement refers to the responsibility that is being performed by the parents (Christenson & Sheridan, 2001) to have their children achieved their utmost potential through assisting them in school related works. It could be as simple as asking the child of events in school that day to asking the child of activities they want to participate, be involved in various activities of Parents Teachers Association and other voluntary works they could offer to school.
Parents as stakeholders of a school were as important as the pupils thus they contribute to the success of school. (Nihat Şad & Gürbüztürk, 2013). It is being said that involving parents in education has yielded positive outcomes in many aspects with satisfactory performance thus, improvement in school performance of the children was expected.
According to Sapungan, and Sapunga (2014), involving parents in children’s education is synonymous to children’s improved performance in school. The more we involve parents the more the teachers and administrators raise the possibility of attaining quality education.
It refers to the parent’s effort to interact with the child and to the school to promote success in school (Hill et al., 2004). Additionally, in the studies of Clarke, 2001; Fan & Chen, 2001; and Garcia Coll et.al., 2002, they refer it as multidimensional construct that includes cognitive, affective, and behavioral facets of parenting which are related to children’s education. It also includes personal views regarding education, expectations, and practices at home and in school (Seginer, 2006). More so, there are three categories of parental involvement: home-based involvement, school-based involvement and academic socialization (Wang & Sheikh-Khalil, 2014).
Monitoring of school activities and helping in homework are examples of home-based involvement while attending school meetings and rendering voluntary works in school are examples of school-based involvement. Academic socialization refers to parenting strategies which communicate importance of education, expectations, and encouragement to the child (Wang & Sheikh-Khalil, 2014).
Effects of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps)
Tabilog, et.al., (2017) conducted a study entitled, Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps): The effectiveness on Social Welfare and Development. The researchers’ aim of conducting the study was to determine if the 4Ps was effective on the welfare and development of its beneficiaries. It was found out that most of the household beneficiaries have four to six members and that there are three beneficiary children in most of the families. that the head and spouse finished high school. Majority of them reside in a house they own, with iron sheet roofing, concrete walls, and pail system toilet.
Most of them own at least an electric fan, a television, a cellular phone. Families earning money from employment like construction worker, having other source, or the parent(s) is/are a vendor or a driver dominate. Further, the study shows that 4Ps support is observed and is effective on social welfare and development of its beneficiaries in Brgy. Butong, City of Cabuyao, Laguna. It was also found out that there was no significant relationship between the program support and the level of effectiveness on social welfare and development.
The study of Frufonga (2015) used Input-Process-Output Model in an attempt to evaluate the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) in Iloilo, Philippines. It used the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software in determining the frequency count, percentage, and mean. There were evidences on the improvement in the preventive healthcare among pregnant women and younger children. There was a decrease in the incidence of child labor. There was a decrease to 0% in the drop out rate which was a good indicator of improvement. The beneficiaries spent the largest amount of income on food, followed by education, hospitalization (medicine), and savings. In the same manner, the 4Ps program increased parents’ participation in the Family Development Sessions to nearly 100%.
Vigilla-Montecillo, et al (2017) conducted a study on 4 Ps which aimed to analyze the household dietary diversity of beneficiary and non-beneficiary households of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) in selected barangays in San Pablo City, Laguna, Philippines and determine the nutritional status of children (6-60 months old) within these households. Findings showed that beneficiary households had higher HDDS compared to the non-beneficiary households. The results also suggest that beneficiary households with larger household size, higher income, who were living in rural areas and who have female as well as more educated financial managers, tend to have a more diverse diet. On the other hand, a higher prevalence of malnutrition was observed among children in beneficiary households.
The researchers concluded that beneficiary households of 4Ps had better diet quality in terms of diversity than non-beneficiary households. However, the advantage of having a more diverse diet has not fully addressed the malnutrition problem among children as it was still widely prevalent in beneficiary households.