Purposes of study were to determine a link between occupation and low back pain among the faculty of university of management and technology Lahore. The study were to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for low back pain in teachers and to evaluate the association of individual and occupational characteristics with the prevalence of low back pain. Low back pain is a major disability in today’s societies and the costs of this disability are high. It has been estimated that up to 80% of all people will experience back pain during their life. Low back pain is widely accepted as an important health and socio-economic problem which affects a large segment of the population.
Teaching is a profession which involves such duties which makes them prone to different physical and psychological stresses and disorders including LBP (low back pain).Many of the possible risk factors for low back pain prolong sitting, standing, stress, and wrong posture sitting these are found in teaching profession making them vulnerable to musculoskeletal disorders like round shoulders, thoracic kyphosis, and increased lumbar lordosis and low back pain. So, the study is being conducted on faculty members of the university because of the above mentioned risk factors.
The method used in this study is simple random sampling and information was collected through questionnaires. Although low back pain (LBP) represents a common occupational problem, few epidemiological studies have investigated this problem particularly in Pakistan. The study is being first time carried out in UMT Lahore.
Background and Significance
Now Low back pain is a globally spreading health issues and one of the most frequent musculoskeletal disorders in our daily lives. It has a lifetime prevalence of 80%. Extreme discomfort, costly medical treatments, and absence from work are common side effects of low back pain. LBP can be defined as the pain between the 12th rib and the inferior gluteal folds (low back), with or without leg pain from various causes. It is categorized as “specific” or “non-specific” LBP. Non-specific LBP is defined as having symptoms of unknown etiology or without identifiable pathology however specific LBP is defined as that is caused by a specific or known pathology and physiological mechanism, such as disc prolapse or herniated nucleus pulpous, infection, inflammatory arthopathy, tumor, osteoporosis or fracture. LBP is not a life threatening disease but it does make a major health problem globally.
It is usually come with the painful limitation of movement, often influenced by physical activities and posture, and may be associated with referred or radiating pain. Numerous individual factors are associated with low back pain, but a growing research supports that occupational exposures is one of the major contributor to its occurrence and that this factor attributes 37% to LBP globally.
Thus low back pain (LBP) is a common occupational problem, few epidemiological studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors for LBP among teachers. This type of study is not held in Pakistan previously particularly at university level. Hence the aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and distribution of LBP among teachers in UMT Lahore and to establish risk factors that influence the development and the extent of their symptoms.
The main concern of research is to build a link between occupation and low back pain in faculty members of UMT Lahore. The literature review suggest that few epidemiological studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors for LBP among teachers particularly in Pakistan. Teachers are known to represent such an occupational group among which there are high prevalence of LBP (low back pain).
Most of the research reports that poor posture, prolonged sitting work and when preparing for lectures, and poor furniture are aggravating factors for LBP among faculty members. Low back pain (LBP) is even worse in developing countries, with average working conditions in many disciplines and lack of knowledge for ergonomic education, education and physical training programs. LBP leads to a poor quality of life for individuals, but also declines efficiency due to absence from work and early retirement.
Increasing body of knowledge report that now a days LBP is a problem which is costing much. Spine pain may occur due to repetitive trauma that can harm the bones, muscles and their attachments to the bone, also affecting nerves and blood supply. Recent research suggest that teachers are at an increased risk of musculoskeletal disorders due to their work requirements.
Occupational-related tasks are thought to be a main reason for LBP among faculty members. It is reported that wrong posture, prolonged sitting work and when preparing for lessons, and poor furniture are aggravating factors for LBP among faculty members. This is vital in policy making to know about factors that relate to LBP among teachers and then take preventive measure for such conditions so as to protect teacher’s health and the quality of education delivered that students receive.
Many studies suggesting major associations between physical, social, psychological and structural factors that affects workers lives at workplace. In spite of these facts, few studies examine which of the varied risk factors are associated with LBP in the teaching occupation. Few risk factors associated with LBP are gender, age, lifestyle, and the psycho-social dilemmas. using sedentary lifestyle, frequent weight lifting, weakness of abdominal wall muscle, obesity, smoking, increase in lumber lordosis, scoliosis, cardiovascular disorders, low socio-economic status, and high body mass index (BMI) also contribute to LBP. Some factors are occupation related: poor sitting posture, prolonged sitting, bending, twisting, stooping and lifting heavy objects are some of the reported risk factors for LBP.
Low back pain is not a musculoskeletal disorder instead it is multifactorial including mental and psychological problems which is more harmful for their efficiency and occupation related tasks.it not only affect the physical related tasks but also declines general health of a person. Many studies have suggested that psychological stress like job dis-satisfaction or job-related strain may be a risk factor for low back pain. According to a study world Health Organization (WHO) reported that LBP is one of the top three stressful occupation and a root cause of many health problems.
Anxiety, depression and sleeplessness are some of the mental impacts caused by LBP, where as poor physical performance and decline in general health are included in physical impact. LBP also declines social activities. It mostly present in adults of working age thus affecting their efficiency. The main adverse effects of LBP are poor quality of life, efficacy, and absence from work are enormous, thus it is most common condition of musculoskeletal disability around the world.
Efficiency is how good a worker is performing, presently and in the near future, and how he or she is performing his or her work in relation to the work requirements. The concept of efficiency or work ability is consequence of the indulging of the worker with his or her work. Work ability or efficiency is a kind of equilibrium between the workers’ resources and the work requirements.
Teaching is one of the noble and ancient profession and occupation. Now a day’s many studies suggested that teaching is first among the most stressful occupation. A good body of knowledge states teaching as stressful occupation and proves that teacher stress seems to be a growing problem. Working demands of university teachers require a lot of head down posture, like continuous reading, assignment grading, writing on board and working on desktops. Prolong sitting in front of computer, standing during lecture delivery, frequent overhead writing on board are some hazardous activities found in teachers.
Mental and work stress is also responsible for numerous negative health issues that definitely affect the individual himself, as well as the employer and society as a whole.
The literature review on low back pain and the teaching profession as an occupation tells that teachers are vulnerable to several stressful circumstances during their job. Instead of above mentioned facts the prevalence of LBP and its negative effect on the working ability and psychological health of teachers in universities of Lahore, Pakistan is not well documented. Thus in the present study an attempt has been made to study prevalence and risk factors of LBP. This study will also try to establish the link between the low back pains, efficiency of teachers of UMT Lahore, Pakistan.