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English About Speaking Skills

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PERCEPTIONS ABOUT SPEAKING SKILLS 1

Abstract

The present study aims to investigate “Perceptions of BS-English students about Speaking Skills through Cooperative Learning studying in Public Sector Colleges of Lahore, Pakistan.” The objective of the present study is to find out the difficulties of ESL learners related to speaking skills. It also attempts to seek students’ as well as teachers’ perceptions about speaking skills through cooperative learning.

This research followed the mixed method approach. To meet the aims of this examination the analyst managed two research instruments, one is a semi-structured questionnaire for the students and the other is interview led among English instructors. The discoveries from this exploration give proof that cooperative learning is a compelling system for expanding learners’ oral production in a classroom interactional environment.

The conclusion drawn from this investigation has expressed that utilizing cooperative learning helps BS-English students in building up their self-confidence and decreasing their classroom anxiety and restraint. At last, this examination has pragmatic implications for educators for to adequately actualize this method and others for students that may help them to enhance their speaking skills. Keywords: ESL learners, cooperative learning, speaking skills, anxiety, interaction

PERCEPTIONS ABOUT SPEAKING SKILLS 2

Introduction

Background of the Study

Language is one of the fundamental skills that a man is related with. It is a social and individual marvel. It is an arrangement of discretionary vocal codes which allows people to speak with one another and express their conclusions, reflections and culture. As indicated by Lyons (1981: p. 2), it is the maintenance of language which distinguishes man from different creatures. By speaking, it intends to use words as well as to pass on the message through these words. It isn’t conceivable to live without language. In the present age where the world has turned into a global village, individuals have a tendency to talk in one another’s language. It can be stated that we require interaction at each progression of our life. Subsequently, language is a basic gadget used to communicate and to comprehend one another.

English is a global language with an exceptional status everywhere throughout the world. According to Drubin and Kellogg (2012) it is the language of science and technology. In Pakistan English is the first second language that is used as a medium of instruction in most of the educational institutes and it is considered as an essential subject to achieve the information.

Fundamental motivation behind English teaching-learning process is to make the learners able to utilize English to impart in both verbal and written form. It is a subject that consists of four basic skills such as listening, speaking, reading and writing. Also, there are a few components of language that ought to be taught to build up these four abilities they are: grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and spelling.

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All of English abilities and English components are basic, yet speaking ability is the most central expertise that English student should ace as it is basically utilized by individuals in their communication. A large number of ESL learners think English with a specific end goal to create capability in speaking. Many people think that, speaking is the toughest errand in language since its utilization sense includes the embodiment either of the phonological system of the language. Hence it can be reasoned that speaking is the most imperative expertise that ought to be demonstrated first when somebody is learning about a language.

Unfortunately, students’ speaking skills are seemed to get less suitable attention as compared to writing and reading skills. Although, students start learning English in their elementary school, but they remain unable to speak it properly even at higher levels. According to Nawaz (2015) students find it difficult to pronounce certain English words and they also have limited vocabulary. They do not know meaning of certain words in English. So, they often get confused when the instructor teaches in English. Teachers of English Language are continuously in search of what may help their students in enhancing their level of language proficiency.

Instructors understand that continuous utilization of English language is important in or outside the class. To enhance participation of students they have introduced different systems and procedures yet every one of them has gone futile.

In Pakistan, students are hesitant and thus reluctant to speak English in front of others mostly for the fear of being discouraged by the group of peers, making mistakes and lack of self- confidence (Nawaz, 2015). Same is the case with students of BS-English. They are not so good at speaking. They find it difficult to communicate in English. So, it is need of the hour to know what students think regarding their speaking skills because the ESL learners are expected to be good in this area. In addition, the instructors need to know the issues that are a hindrance in the

PERCEPTIONS ABOUT SPEAKING SKILLS 4

way of their students and overcome the identified hurdles to polish their speaking skillsultimately.

Students think that it’s aloof or do not appreciate customary teaching techniques. They generally like inventiveness. Thus, the analyst expects that students can upgrade their talking aptitudes through Cooperative Learning Method as it is a fruitful technique in which little groups, each with students of various levels of capacity, utilize an assortment of learning strategies to enhance their comprehension of a subject. As, Slavin in Isjoni (2011: p. 15), expresses that in cooperative learning strategy, students cooperate in four part groups to ace material at first present by the instructor.

Therefore, the researcher conducted a research entitled “Perceptions of BS-English Students about Speaking Skills through Cooperative Learning studying in Public Sector Colleges of Lahore, Pakistan”.

Statement of the Problem

The majority of ESL learners in Pakistan face many difficulties when they talk in English. Improving the learners’ speaking ability in English has been one of the most important challenges faced by Pakistani ESL teachers (Nawaz, 2015). The problem here is that the importance of cooperative learning is almost neglected or of little interest and the learners are just passive consumers of the knowledge. Therefore, the study was designed to investigate the perceptions of students about this technique in developing their speaking ability.

Research Objectives

The current research study aims to meet following objectives:

PERCEPTIONS ABOUT SPEAKING SKILLS

  • 1. to know the students’ speaking difficulties,
  • 2. to find out the perceptions of students about cooperative learning, and
  • 3. to investigate ESL teachers’ perceptions about cooperative learning technique in the classroom

Research Questions

To address the problem this research proposal asks a few question:

  • 1. What are the students’ speaking difficulties?
  • 2. What are the students’ perceptions about cooperative learning?
  • 3. Are teachers conscious of the role of cooperative learning?

Significance of the Research

The results of this research are expected to give some theoretical and practicaladvantages.

  1.  Theoretically, this research offers useful and referential contributions in giving standardknowledge of the way to enhance the students’ speaking skills.
  2.  Practically, the results of this research are equally beneficial to the following:
  •  For the researcher, the study can give a practice in developing his knowledge and skill in problem-solving strategies.
  •  For English teachers, the study may be used as a supply of data in maximum ways to enhance the students’ speaking competencies.

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  •  For students, the research will make them to be involved and prompted to learn and to speak English.
  •  For other researchers, the research can supply a general understanding of the perceptions of BS-English students about their speaking competencies and it will help future researchers as the base for their research.

Limitations of the Study

There are some limitations to this study. As the population of the study is BS-English students of public sector colleges of Lahore. It includes both male and female colleges. Being a male student and due to limited time and resources it was not possible for the researcher to go in all the colleges. So, the present study has been restricted to three male colleges of Lahore where

BS-English program is being offered. Indeed, the results of this research cannot be even generalized to represent all the students of BS-English in Lahore and it creates a gap for the future researchers.

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Literature Review

Definitions of Speaking

Speaking is one of the productive skills of English and it goes parallel with all other language skills. Speech is taken into consideration as one of the maximum vital pursuits in language teaching. Learning to speak English is the shortest route to learning to read it and to write it. Speaking has been extensively defined by various authors in literature from different point of views.

Reviewing preceding studies associated with defining speaking, it is noticed that two main approaches are adopted to define speaking, the bottom-up and the top-down. In the bottom- up view the focus is on motor perceptive skills (Bygate 1987: p. 5-6).

Within this context, speaking is described as the manufacturing of auditory indicators designed to produce different verbal responses in a listener. This method is followed via audio-lingualism. The problem with this approach is that it overlooks the interactive and social component of speaking, restricting it handiest to its psychomotor experience. Eckard & Kearny (1981), Florez (1999) and Howarth (2001) outline speaking as a two–way process concerning a real communication of ideas, facts or feelings.

According to the top-down view oral text is the product of cooperation between two or more interactants in shared time, and a shared physical context. Nunan (2003) defines it, “Speaking is the productive oral skill which consists of producing systematic verbal utterances to convey meaning” (p. 48). Speaking is the ability upon which scholars will be rationalized maximum in real-life situations (Hornby 1995: p. 37). It is a critical part of daily life interactions

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and oftenly the first influence of a person is primarily based on his/her capacity to speak eloquently and entirely. Speaking is an interactive technique of constructing meaning that includes producing, receiving and processing information (Luoma, 2004). It is miles frequently spontaneous, open ended, and evolving. Hedge (2000) defines talking as a skill by way of which people are rationalized at the same time as initial impressions are being shaped. Brown (2001) says that speaking is utilizing language in routine voice; uttering phrases; knowing and being capable to use a language; expressing oneself in words; making a speech.

Speaking is the process via which students try to use any or all the language forms at their ease to accomplish some types of speaking activities (Harmer 1998). We usually speak to achieve some subjective needs, in addition to administer or carry out some social or any other transactional reasons. Spratt, Pulverness, and Williams (2011) report “Speaking includes plenty more than simply the use of grammar and vocabulary correctly in speech” (p. 48-49). Whilst we communicate we constantly have in thoughts the individual we are speaking to and our wish is to communicate our meaning effectively to them. We use interactive techniques to help us attain this.

Those include the use of body language which includes gestures, eye contact, facial expression and movement to place our message across more effectively and clearly, and functions such as simplifying our meaning, asking for opinions, agreeing to maintain the interaction going and check that is successful.and oftenly the first influence of a person is primarily based on his/her capacity to speak eloquently and entirely. Speaking is an interactive technique of constructing meaning that includes producing, receiving and processing information (Luoma, 2004).

It is miles frequently spontaneous, open ended, and evolving. Hedge (2000) defines talking as a skill by way of which people are rationalized at the same time as initial impressions are being shaped. Brown (2001) says that speaking is utilizing language in routine voice; uttering phrases; knowing and being capable to use a language; expressing oneself in words; making a speech.

Speaking is the process via which students try to use any or all the language forms at their ease to accomplish some types of speaking activities (Harmer 1998). We usually speak to achieve some subjective needs, in addition to administer or carry out some social or any other transactional reasons.

Spratt, Pulverness, and Williams (2011) report “Speaking includes plenty more than simply the use of grammar and vocabulary correctly in speech” (p. 48-49). Whilst we communicate we constantly have in thoughts the individual we are speaking to and our wish is to communicate our meaning effectively to them. We use interactive techniques to help us attain this. Those include the use of body language which includes gestures, eye contact, facial expression and movement to place our message across more effectively and clearly, and functions such as simplifying our meaning, asking for opinions, agreeing to maintain the interaction going and check that is successful.

Aspects of Speaking

There are some aspects which should be considered by the teacher while teaching speaking. Brown (2001: p. 268-269) suggests four aspects of speaking skills namely fluency, accuracy, pronunciation, and vocabulary. They have become the basic necessities that ought to

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exist for the teacher to shape the speaking activities for his/her students. Therefore, a good speaking activity has to cover all these aspects.

Fluency

The main objective wished to be achieved by the teachers in teaching the productive skill of speaking is oral fluency; it is the main characteristics of the speaker’s performance. According to Segalowitz (2003, as cited in Knapp and Antos, 2009, p. 409) the term fluency is defined as “an ability in the second language to produce or comprehend utterances smoothly, rapidly, and accurately”.

Accuracy

Goh and Burns (2012) define accuracy as “speech where the message is communicated using correct grammar. The notion of accuracy can also be expanded to include correct pronunciation according to the target language norms” (p. 43). The preference is to express the meaning, so that the learners should not only know the grammatical rules, but they should be used correctly and properly. Without forming the right speech, the speakers will not be considered and their interference will lose interest if they do wrong statements all the time. Therefore, the language and focus of the language are of more importance for speaking skill.

Pronunciation

At the initial level, the objective of teaching pronunciation is based on clear and understandable pronunciation. Moreover at the advanced level the pronunciation objectives are focused on elements that enhance communication which will enshroud stress pattern, intonation, voice quality, etc.

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Vocabulary

Vocabulary has become a very essential part of language learning which can be used to judge students’ eloquence in English speaking. They can produce sentences only with the help of words. It is impossible to speak fluently without having an adequate bank of vocabulary. Those students who have restricted vocabulary face many problems in speaking.

Elements of Speaking

In order to attain success and become an eloquent speaker in the procedure of learning a foreign language, learners need to have command on some requisite elements for spoken production. Harmer (2001) suggests two basic elements which are:

  •  Language features
  •  Mental / Social Processing

Language Features

Learners of English as a second language are required to know the following language features:

Connected speech

Harmer (2001) states that keen ESL learners know how and when to modify, pass over, and add in connected speech. That is to say, they generate not only separated phonemes of English (as in saying I would have gone), but also a connected speech (as in saying I’d’ve gone).

PERCEPTIONS ABOUT SPEAKING SKILLS

Expressive devices

Harmer (2001) enunciates that native speakers of English employ certain phonological rules that include the pitch, stress, volume, and speed with the use of non-verbal means. It is essential for learners to have a sense about those devices as they are very helpful and useful to intend the actual meaning, and learners will not be efficient communicators if they are not aware of those supra-segmental features and devices.

Lexis and grammar

Harmer (2001) delineates that majority of EFL learners use the identical lexical structure when they generate some language production, it is the teachers’ obligation to offer a number of phrases which encompass different functions such as agreeing, disagreeing, expressing shock, or surprise etc. In this regard, students will use those phrases at various levels of communication with others when they are involved in a peculiar speaking context.

 Negotiation language

According to Harmer (2001) negotiation language can play a constructive role in the process of learning a foreign language as learners frequently use it to ask for more clarification, explanation, and repetition when they are hearing to others’ speech through the use of polite expressions phrases such as:

  • I didn’t quite catch that.
  • I don’t understand.

Could you explain that again, please?

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Learners are required to perform their utterances well if they wish to be clear and to the point specifically if other interlocutors did not understand them. The teachers’ role is then; to help their students by giving the required explanations and expressions in order to use it when they ask for more clarification and explanation from other speakers.

Mental / Social processing

To have an effective speaking ESL Learners should know the following necessary features:

Language processing

According to Harmer (2001) ESL learners should be able to process language mentally and demonstrate it in a coherent order so that it should be clearly understood by other speakers. Language processing also involves retrieving words and phrases from their memories in order to use them in an appropriate way whilst they are talking to someone else.

Interacting with others

Harmer (2001) states that as speaking is an interactive process between two or more participants, ESL speakers should be capable of cautiously listening and clearly comprehending what others are saying and feeling, and knowing how linguistically to take turns or permit others to do so.

Information Processing

Harmer (2001) enunciates that in addition to interacting with others, effective speakers ought to quickly process the facts in mind, due to the fact that the more time you’ll take to process the information, the less powerful your reply to others’ might be.

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Process of Speaking

Thornbury (2005) during his investigation of the process of teaching speaking delineates that the nature of the speaking process indicates that the grammar of oral language is totally different from the grammar of the written language.

Speaking is more than just a communicative potential of producing and receiving information, so that speaking is a complicated skill which desires a real practice to be developed.

Speech production

To know the procedures associated with creating and expressing meaning through language is the main objective behind the investigation of speaking process. Thornbury (2005) found that the natural speech production is classified by three main features.

  • First, speech production is linear as it generally takes place in real life as words follow words and phrases follow phrases.
  • Second, it is contingent because the speech is produced utterance by utterance; word by word in response to the speaker we are talking to. At last, it is spontaneous due to the fact that the speech produced by the listener in a conversation depends and closely associated to what has been said by the speaker.

Conceptualization and Formulation

Speech production begins in conceptualization. According to Thornbury (2005), speakers are required to conceptualize what they desire to speak in terms of the discourse type, topic and aim. Speech is first of all conceptualized when the speaker makes use of new concepts with the intention to take turn.

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According to Garman (1990: as cited in Goh and Burns, 2012: p.37) formulation is the process by which the thoughts that persist in the speaker’s mind during conceptual preparation are framed on to specific words in the speaker’s mental lexicon and strung together.

At the level of discourse, stories have a script and of course an introduction, middle as well as end. Scripts which are part of people’s shared background knowledge can be very beneficial in keeping the formulation time and simplifying the listener load. The suitable syntax is chosen according to the speaker’s desire that is liable for the order of the utterance factors.

Articulation

Articulation happens when a stream of air is generated in the lungs passes through the vocal cords and shaped among other organs such as movements of the tongue, lips and teeth.

Along the same lines, Goh and Burns (2012) argue that articulation can be a grueling stage in language learners’ speech processing, due to the fact that if second language learners give too much importance to the articulation process, they feel more uneasy, and they start fabricating doubt about their pronunciation if it is understood by others or not. Thus, they lose their self-esteem and feel more embarrassed and keep away from speaking opportunities.

Self-monitoring and repair

According to Thorunbury (2005), self-monitoring is the process that happens within the conceptualization, formulation, and articulation stages, while repair occur in reaction to self- monitoring or to the messages transferred by one’s interlocutors, and occurs when the speaker repair sequences, because we all do mistakes in a conversation and use some kinds of self- correction to repair it.

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Types of Speaking

Brown (2000) summarizes six kinds of oral production that students are expected to carry out in the classroom.

Imitative

Brown (2000) states that students tend to mimic native speakers in their speech when they are exposed to authentic materials. It is a kind of human tape recorder speech where learners are supposed to point a certain vowel sound, and this kind of imitation is not for the purpose of understanding or conveying meaning or to take part in interactive conversation, but rather it takes place to focus on some peculiar elements of language forms as we are interested only in what has been pronounced before, and these may help learners to improve their speaking skill.

Intensive

According to Brown (2000) the second type is one step beyond imitative to encompass any speaking performances that are arranged to practice some phonological, lexical, or grammatical aspects of language. Learner’s interaction through pair work tasks is required in intensive speaking or it can be subjective to learner’s internal motivation.

Responsive

Brown (2000) delineates that when students give answers to teachers or other students’ questions or comments in a given situation in the classroom they can be responsive, with pithy and simple answer to create more interactional atmosphere in the classroom. For example:

T: How are you today?

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  • S: pretty good, thanks, and you?
  • S1: So, what did you write for question number one?
  • S2: Well, I wasn’t sure, so I left it in blank

Transactional Dialogue

Brown (2000) says that transactional dialogue is executed for the purpose of conveying or substituting very peculiar information and it could be a part of group or pair work. In contrast to responsive language, transactional dialogue may additionally have more negotiative nature to attain agreement via discussion. For example:

  • T: What is the main idea in this essay?
  • S: Pakistan should have more authority.
  • T: More authority than what?
  • S: Than it does right now.
  • T: What do you mean?
  • S: Well, for example, Pakistan should have the power to stop terrorists from their activities.

Interpersonal Dialogue

Brown (2000) states that interpersonal dialogues are carried out primarily to keep social relationships in place of the transmission of data and information. In interpersonal conversation, it is far more complicated for learners to deal with oral production, due to the fact they need to talk in an informal register and use colloquial language, slang, ellipsis, sarcasm, humor, and different sociolinguistic conventions, which aren’t smooth to be used by beginners. For example:

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Ali: Hi Usman, how’s going on?

Usman: Oh, so-so

Ali: Not a great weekend, huh?

Usman: Well, far bit from me to criticize, but I’m pretty piqued about last week. Ali: What are talking about? Usman: I think you know perfectly well what I’m talking about.

Ali: Oh, that…how come you get so bent out of shape over something like that? Usman: Well, whose fault was it, huh?

Ali: Oh, wow, this is great, wonderful. Back to square one. For caring out loud, Usman, I thought we’d settled this before. Well, what more can I say.

Extensive Monologue

According to Brown (2000), at last students are expected to deliver extensive monologue in the form of oral reports, summaries, or short story telling, in which the language style will be more formal and planned.

Speaking Difficulties

Learners over and over face some difficulties when practicing the speaking skill due to absence of interest in the subject, lack of self-confidence etc. Ur (1991) claims that there are four main problems which students face while speaking a foreign language in the classroom which are: inhibition, nothing to say, low or uneven participation, and mother-tongue use.

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Inhibition

This problem occurs when ESL learners try to take part in the classroom speaking activities. Ur (1991: 121) states:

Learners are often inhibited about trying to say things in a foreign language in the classroom: worried about making mistakes, fearful of criticism or losing face, or simply shy of the attention that their speech attracts.

In other words, inhibition make students simply passive observers, they hardly ever participate, explicit their critiques, feeling, or thoughts, because of fear of committing mistakes, being laughed, or being criticized by instructors and fellow students.

Nothing to say

The frequent statements which EFL learners exercise when they are asked to participate in a given topic is ‘I have nothing to talk about’, ‘I don’t know’, ‘no comment’ or they keep silence. Ur (1991) confirmed that when he states “even if they are not inhibited, you often hear learners complaining that they cannot think of anything to say” (p. 121).

Low or uneven participation

This problem refers to the amount of talking time of students. Ur (1991) states that only one speaker can talk at a time if he or she is to be heard; and in a big organization because of this everyone will have little or no talking time. This proposition is compounded by the inclination of some learners to dominate, while others tell very little or not at all.

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Mother tongue use

ESL learners of the identical mother tongue have a tendency to apply it outdoor or eveninside the lecture room due to the fact they feel greater comfort and less exposed to the target language. Ur (1991, p. 121) confirmed that by stating:

In classes where all, or a number of, learners share the same mother tongue, they may tend to use it: because it is easier, because it feels unnatural to speak to one another in a foreign language, and because they feel ‘exposed’ if they are speaking their mother tongue. Therefore, beginners will in no way be able to use the foreign language correctly in case if they maintain the usage of their mother tongue.

Assessing Speaking

In second language teaching, it is essential to assess all learners speaking skill. Luoma (2004) stated “The development and use of speaking tests is a cyclical process. It starts from a need for speaking scores and finishes with the use of the scores for this purpose” (p. 170). It typically takes place to help instructors making judgments about their students’ speaking performance.

Brown and Yule (1983) considered that the evaluation of the oral language is a very hard task for English teachers from an early time, and they argued “the teacher should continue to assess these features, not in isolation, but as part of his assessment of the student’s ability to communicate effectively in the spoken language” (p.103). More precisely, teachers may determine their learners’ pronunciation and fluency but not separately from learners’ capability to communicate efficiently, since the main goal of English instructors is to make their students capable of speaking effectively within the foreign language process.

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Moreover, Thornbury (2005) states that speaking assessment can occur at the nascence or at the end of language courses and of course during the course itself to determine the learners expertise, and it can be formal or informal. The procedure of analyzing and measuring knowledge and ability is called assessment, in this case, the learner’s knowledge of the language and ability to communicate. Testing can have a significant effect on how a teacher works with his pupils and also effects how pupils learn.

However, formulating a written test for grammar is not that convenient, testing speaking is not an easy task because of the intricacy of the skill, because in case we include oral components in a test, the testing procedure will be intricate in terms of applicability and the way assessment criteria can be safely applied.

Definitions of Cooperative Learning

Cooperative language learning is one of the most famous and efficacious learning techniques executed by teachers to give students the opportunity to use the language in meaningful interaction. Cooperative Language Learning (CLL) takes many shapes and definitions; each of them gives emphasis on a particular angle, but all definitions highlight its importance.

Shindler (2010) states that “Cooperative learning refers to any form of instruction in which students are working together for a purpose” (p. 227). Of course the purpose will be in one way or the other academical. Gomleksiz (1991, p.1, as cited in Gokkurt, Dundar, Soylu, and

Akgun, 2012, p.3432) postulates:

Cooperative learning is a learning approach that, they are helping each other learn about academic subjects, creating small mixed groups of students in the classroom in accordance with a common purpose and the group’s success is rewarded in different ways.

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Norland and Pruett-Said (2006) stated the same expression earlier when they said “An interactive approach refers to language learning that is authentic and genuine and takes place between two or more people, and cooperative learning is the most frequent application of this approach” (p. 21). It means, cooperative learning gives students’ the chance to work together in an interactive process to create meaningful learning proficiencies which may help them develop genuine fluency in another language.

Cooperative learning refers to a number of teaching techniques in which students work in small groups to help each other learn academic material (Slavin 1995: p. 2). The senior students will help junior ones to improve their comprehension of the subject. The idea behind cooperative learning is that the students will have motivation to help each other to master academic contents by giving a reward to a group rather than individual. Each member of a team is accountable not only for learning the materials but also for helping team members to understand the subject and complete the given assignment.

Thus, it creates an environment to achieve something. Moreover, Olivares (2007) recognized that cooperative learning is a social process concerned with developing both social and educational outcomes, in which instructors are required to divide learners in small groups to interact and work together to get success and achieve desired results. According to Dean (2000) fruitful learning is dependent on successful classroom organization, so teachers can use cooperative learning techniques as a powerful tool for promoting language acquisition.

Hill and Flynn (2006) say that students feel more relax to speak in the classroom in small groups in a way that whole class cannot. Wathins, Carnell and Lodge (2007) state that through students interaction in collaborative surroundings, there may be continually something new created that couldn’t have been created in any other case. According to Kagan (1994, as cited in Motaei, 2014, p. 1250) cooperative learning is a teaching

PERCEPTIONS ABOUT SPEAKING SKILLS 22

arrangement that refers to small, miscellaneous groups of learners working together to get a goal of mutual interest.

Roots of Cooperative Learning

The starting point of cooperative learning approach has been made in the basis of different underplaying psychological theories, and has its roots in social psychology, developmental psychology, and humanist psychology.

Social Psychology

According to MacCaferty, Jacobs, and DaSilva Iddings (2006) cooperative learning technique came into existence in the 1970’s by Aranson and his fellows based on the sociologist Alpor’s work (1954) on how to give facilitations to the dynamics of group among people from different ethnic groups who come to live together and he puts three conditions which seem to be necessary for interaction to achieve practical relations.

Firstly, the person whom you are talking to must have the same status; they should have common objectives and finally their classroom collaboration should be authorized officially. These three conditions were applied later on to the classroom by Aranson and his coworkers (Aranson, Blaney, Stephan, Sikes and Snapp 1978) to improve students’ relationships inside classrooms in Southwest in the United States at integrated schools where students are characterized by ethnic assortment in teaching different topics including second language teaching in the form of strategies like Jigsaw using print and spoken texts, noting that the teacher job is not just selecting and shaping activities, attitudes, and so on, but also as a facilitator that guides the learners for successful learning surroundings.

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