In this document, we will try to understand the requirements involved in developing an innovative concept for “Innovative Bridge Construction System”. The purpose of promoting this idea is to avoid the detours of traffic, avoid time delays in travels of the Traffic. The most situations that are at present in existence remain the systems which do not obey a lot of traffic rules and regulations. In recent years, the Bridge Construction Companies started developing more and more in concerning safety and flexibility by coming up with various kinds of Engineered Machines which can handle everything by itself and can built the bridge in few hours or in few days of span. Every person who travels by a particular road or a highway expects to reach his/her destination on estimated time arrival. But the Road Transportation Authorities have not yet come up in explaining this issue to the people.
Many municipalities and departments of transportation (DOT’s.) are finding it difficult in regulating the traffic, especially during the construction of a bridge. Engineering firms and contractors are however working on a technology which helps the government to overcome this issue. The system we are trying to develop will be assisting the transportation authorities in addressing this issue while constructing bridges.
The predecessor system uses human labor and expertise as well as heavy machines. Due to human errors, some inaccuracies take place which needs to be fixed continuously throughout the construction as well as things like liability, workers insurance, time and well-being of the labor need to be considered. And this predecessor frequently requires safety regulations and numerous numbers of supporting systems to prevent loss of human lives. This causes obstruction of traffic as well as many delays in time before the primary objectives are achieved. The new system resolves the issue of inaccuracy and reduces the time taken to construct as well as can be achieved without the complete obstruction of roads or traffic utilizing the various innovative techniques and technology.
There has never been any company that strives forward to take on these great tasks and risks related to the opportunities given by the new technologies, but in recent years a few companies have braved in taking chances to achieve greatness. The most difficult challenges taken in the modern era are in the fields of construction and destruction of any material on this earth. The system which are yet to develop the bridges that could be constructed in hundreds of times faster, accurate and with the senior level of recession without the requirement of massive and extensive supporting structures that would obstruct the oncoming traffic in the roads below.
Countries like China are coming up with their own new inventions in the field of construction. They have been doing studies and experimental building structures using their new technology called Bridge-building machine SLJ900 32, which is also called Iron Monster. This machine is actually placed on the highly elevated bridge which rolls forward by placing part of each section of the bridge in an aligned way. They say that this machine weighs around 580 tons and 98m (300ft) and costs in some billions of dollars. This machine is called as all-in-one for its ability of carrying, lifting and placing sections of track, connecting pillars and heavy stones. They are trying to mainly develop in high-speed rail projects using this kind of technology. But when we think about the cost budget, the basic requirement and the support staff, not every country, can have a specific budget plan for only in the construction of bridges. Economically backward country governments cannot afford this machine for building bridges. Similarly, a lot of research is going into this field.
This new system will be influenced by multi stakeholders whom we are talking here in this section. As the concept is being developed for future use, Feedback from every stakeholder is must as the concept we are going to create a new one. Not every stakeholder is a substantial number of administrators if the new system we are developing is put in use in the future.
The requirements expected out of the new system is to avoid the detours of traffic and avoid time delays in travels of the Traffic. Our general purpose, we are trying here to isolate the current system’s activities. The advantage of this new system is that a lot of complications are being solved to the decision making of the primary entity and increases the decision taken practically.
The operational requirements of the new system is been taken from the mentioned list of defects in our old system:
- The detour of the traffic heading towards the destination.
- The dust and air-borne materials that are dispersed during the construction by the predecessor system needs to be reduced or avoided.
- The time delays that are inquired due to human activities as well as human errors that need to be fixed or minimized.
- The cost requirements for the old system are high due to various methods that need to be reduced or cut short.
- A large number of multi-skilled labor is required by the current system that increases the cost and human errors that occur. This need to be reduced or minimized.
- The time delay and inconvenience that people face due to the redirection or obstruction or narrowing of the roads need to be avoided. The above is the just factors that dominate to create the requirement for the new system to come up in the future.
The operational functionality can be divided into the following:
- The System should be able to make progress in the Civil Engineering field, that is in the field of Construction.
- The System must support all the rules and regulations that are made by the Government of that particular region or the Municipalities.
- The System must assure that they will be not traffic regulation during this process.
- The System should maintain its own high quality of standards in handling the heavy loads of traffic every day.
- The System shall obey the laws of Road Transport Department and its rules.
- The System should be compatible with all the weather conditions.
There are numerous possibilities for the new system to come up in the future, but under conception a lot of possibilities are ruled out. These possibilities are ruled out because of other technological limitations. Even if the new system is design by using the current technology, it will be beyond all the practical limits of the current era.
Define functions necessary to meet objectives. High level functions are stated in a very general way in Table 3.2 of the text book. Start with the objectives from the previous section and determine what functions are needed to achieve each of those objectives.
Describe the feasibility of the system. To do this you should relate your system ideas to the current system and the available technology. Could a feasible system be developed? For the functions defined in Functional Analysis, is it possible to design a system that has those functions? Visualize potential subsystems that could be identified to logically group functions.
In the section you should demonstrate that the there is a need for a new system and it is feasible to meet that need at an affordable cost and at an acceptable risk.
For the major scenarios described in 2.1.3, Operational Scenarios, describe how the system will function and the expected system responses. Add additional scenarios if applicable.
Develop system performance parameters and measures of effectiveness (MOE) for each of the scenarios. There will likely be more than one MOE for each scenario. The MOEs are metrics of a system’s overall performance and always refers to the system as a whole.
This section is to describe how you developed the Operational Requirements statements and Operational Scenarios, which is the primary product of Needs Analysis and is the input to the next phase of development (Concept Exploration).
In section 2.1.3 you listed scenarios for your system. In 2.4 you developed MOEs for the scenarios. In this section we will develop these scenarios more completely. Describe how you performed the analysis of these scenarios for your system. Capture the operational scenarios for your system in Attachment 1, section 6.6.1.
Later in the design process we will revisit scenarios, but inside the system. They will be related, but NOT be identical, to the scenarios presented here.
This section should be an analysis and description of how you generated your list of operational requirements. Capture the detailed operational requirements for your system in table format in Attachment 2, Section 7.1.1 .
Describe how you performed the operational requirements analysis for your system. Capture the analysis in tabular format in Attachment 2, Section 7.1.2. Analyze the Operational Objectives defined in the Needs Analysis phase. This may be difficult to do since simulation etc. will not be possible. You should start with the list of operational requirements from the end of Needs Analysis.
Document the results of this analysis by copying the Operational Requirements from section 7.1.1 into 7.1.2 and completing the analysis. For each requirement, look to see it meets the following statements.
- Is the requirement traceable to a user need or operational requirement?
- Is the requirement redundant with any other requirement?
- Is the requirement consistent with other requirements? (Requirements should not contradict each other or force the engineer to an infeasible solution.)
- Is the requirement unambiguous and not subject to interpretation?
- Is the requirement technologically feasible?
- Is the requirement affordable?
- Is the requirement verifiable?
Further document the results of this analysis by copying the Operational Requirements from section 7.1.1 into 7.1.3 and modifying the ones that should be changed from this analysis. Add requirements or delete redundant requirements, as necessary, to improve the requirements set. Do not modify ANYTHING in 7.1.1, only modify those in the updated table, now called the UOR = Updated Operational Requirements.
Describe how you performed the operational requirements analysis for your system and what you changed. Indicate what you learned by doing the analysis. Again, capture the results of the analysis in tabular format in Attachment 2, Section 7.1.3.
If this analysis results in needing to modify any or all of the UOR’s in the Table, do that now. (Remember, do not modify ANYTHING in the OR table, only modify those in the UOR = Updated Operational Requirements.) Describe the changes you made here.
Describe how you performed the validation of your operational scenarios. Capture the updated scenarios in Attachment 1, Section 6.6.2. Describe any changes you made to the scenarios.
Taking the operational scenarios from Needs Analysis, update the scenarios. Are the scenarios sufficient to address all significant stakeholder interactions with the system? The scenarios should be answering who, when, where, and how the stakeholders interact with the system. Also, do any of the adjustments made in the requirement analysis need to be reflected in changes in the appropriate scenarios?
Look at the functional block diagram and define how well it should do those functions. Make sure you consider constraints when coming up with the performance characteristics. These performance characteristics are looking internal to the system and specifying how well it must perform internal functions. Describe how you used the diagram and analysis of functions to refine the performance requirements.
Describe the process you used to develop different concepts. Describe how the subsystem concepts were modified as you went through the process to capture the two (or more) best concepts to be considered.
To facilitate this, consider at least two (2) concepts at the subsystem level while visualizing those with multiple component variations.
Look at your functional decomposition and examine if there are different ways to accomplish the functions, at a subsystem level, than the method you have in your initial functional decomposition. If there are any advanced technologies you can examine how those can be implemented in your system. Do not throw out concepts at this phase. Also think about the predecessor systems in how you will be modifying those systems. Label the concepts in some way so you can track which one is which. Look at the figure below to think of a spectrum of concepts.
Develop the performance requirements further by examining the concepts that were developed in the previous section. Describe how these performance requirements satisfy the system operational requirements. Describe the process you used and the changes you made as a result of the concept exploration performed in the previous section. Begin to update the Performance Requirements in Attachment 2, Sections 7.1.4 and 7.2.3 by copying requirements into these tables and modifying the requirements set.
Throughout this final phase, describe how you modified the performance requirements as a result of the concept exploration. Capture the validated performance requirements in Attachment 2, Sections 7.1.4 and 7.2.3 and allocate the requirements to subsystems.
Analyze the Performance Requirements developed in the Concept Exploration. You should start with the list of Performance Requirements from the end of Concept Exploration in Attachment 2 and finalize the requirements for your system for this project. Make sure you consider the full system life cycle when finalizing the requirements. Put the requirements here, make sure you consider how each requirement is measureable/testable. The measurability/testability may have been done previously but make sure it is continued to be considered here.
(If it is easier, this allocation table could have rows for requirements and columns for subsystems, with marks for those subsystems that each requirement is allocated to. Remember that many requirements may be allocated to multiple subsystems.)
Recall that the ‘systems engineering method divides the design task into two closely coupled steps: analyzing and formulating the functional design of the system (what actions it needs to perform) and selecting the most advantageous implementation of the system functions (how the actions can best be physically generated).’ In Concept Selection the functional definition should be done to the system components levels. In the previous section the functional definition should have been done to the subsystem level.
The result of this section is a set of concepts where each concept is described in text and by a pictorial or other physical description for providing a more realistic view of the five system candidates. A diagram of the concept is the best way to describe a concept. Just a paragraph of what is in the concept is not sufficient. Your concepts should show how (physical items) the system will perform the functions in the functional flow diagram from the previous section.
Further refine the different concepts, at a subsystem and component level; describe the concept in writing and updating the various diagrams to best communicate the ideas. Make sure you have considered functional interactions both internally and externally. Number or label each concept and include a diagram and text describing the five concepts.
In this section, supply more details to the functional block diagram of your system and make refinements where necessary. Start with the functional flow block diagram from the Performance Requirements Formulation section in the Concept Exploration section and capture the final in Attachment 3.
Analysis of the concepts in terms of
- operational performance and compatibility,
- program cost,
- program schedule, and
- risk in achieving each of the above.
Your operational performance and compatibility should be tailored to your system. For instance, the example from the slides for the syringe had items like ‘ease of handling’, ‘ease of use’, and ‘dose metering accuracy.’ It didn’t just have ‘operational performance and compatibility.’ Think of the operational objectives when looking at what to put in the weighted trade-off matrix.
You must include a trade-off analysis that has a numerical weighting to determine your final concept. You may copy the excel spreadsheet presented in class over the sample matrix provided here.