EPM is an alternative approach to urban planning and management has been introduced in preference of conventional urban development planning and management approaches based on grounds that issues that need to be addressed in cities, as already pointed out, are beyond the competence of only conventional approaches . The aim of EPM is to enhance the capacity of actors in the public, private and popular sectors to planning and manage the urban environment. In practice however, EPM does not differ significantly from the conventional approaches, except that it is flexible and embodies transparence, acts on priority issues that are crucial to a community, emphasizes partnerships and the need to tap private sector resources to provide public services .
Many countries have thus responded to the problem of urban waste by introducing solid waste management systems that encourage a public/ private partnership. Community groups are encouraged to form associations that deal among other issues with the solid waste management. Private contractors have also been invited to participate.
Solid waste management is a public service and local governments, or respective municipal agencies are basically responsible for its delivery. It is therefore imperative that municipal authorities remain in charge of this task to achieve an overall consistent SWM system on a municipal-wide and regional level. However, this does not mean that government authorities must deliver the actual collection services themselves. In fact, private enterprises or CBOs can, under appropriate conditions, provide solid waste collection, transfer, transport, and disposal services more efficiently and at lower costs than the public sector. It is evidenced that communities are more than willing to provide for themselves urban service like waste management when local authorities are unable to do so .
The Government role then shifts to that of facilitator and supervisor of the service. It is undeniable that every collection scheme, including non-governmental approaches, requires some support from the municipal authorities to achieve sustainability. Hence, municipal enterprises and organizations must be included whenever possible in the planning of such schemes.
Case Study Review
Economic development, urbanization and improving living standards in cities, have led to increase in the quantity and complexity of generated waste. Management of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) resulting out of rapid urbanization has become a serious concern for government departments, pollution control agencies, regulatory bodies and public in most of the developing countries. Rapid growth of population and industrialization degrades urban environment and places serious stress on natural resources, which undermines equitable and sustainable development. Inefficient management and disposal of solid waste is an obvious cause for degradation of environment in most cities of the developing world. A review of case studies below justifies the situation in different developing countries.
These case studies include the solid waste management in Dar es Salaam city by Mbuligwe and Kassenga,  followed by a case study of KIMWODA a CBO in Kinondoni Hanna Nasif Dar es salaam by B.B.K.Majani, . Experience from other developing countries include case studies of solid waste management in Cape Town by Fourie F, ; A case study of solid waste management in Dhaka City, Bangladesh by A community-based initiatives in solid waste management at Faisalabad in Karachi by Mansoor Ali and Marielle Snel and a case study of solid waste management in Mumbai (India).
Existing solid waste Management Practices in Dar es Salaam
In the study of Mbuligwa- and Kassenga in Dar es Salaam, the problem of SWM has been addressed through the mechanism of both conventional and alternative approaches to urban planning management the conventional practices have largely been unsuccessful therefore coordinated efforts under EPM practices have been adopted .