People’s Republic of China was officially established in 1949, soon after that Mao Zedong which was their leader at that time persuade the population to multiply so China can be a powerful country, and thus China’s population doubled. The success was only for a short period of time as the food supply became limited as a result of humongous population. ( National Geographic, 2015)
To overcome this problem, the “one child policy” was introduced in 1979. This policy states that each family can only have 1 child, to reduce the country’s enormous population was the main purpose of this policy. However, some families were allowed to have more than one child. For example if a firstborn child of a family was handicapped, they were allowed to have another child. (Britannica, 2019)
Couples who is having a second child without permit could face penalties given by the government and also for those who violated the policy could get wage cuts, unemployment, and difficulty in receiving government’s aids. On the other hand for families who obey the policy can get satisfactory rewards such as rewards, an increase in wages, could received government aids such as better school and better employment for the parents. The parents would receive “one child certificate” to help them in their daily lives. (Thoughtco, 2018)
However, this policy was controversial to some people because rich people who were living in China could have as many kids as they want because they can pay the fines. Human rights campaigners in China argued that this policy was nothing but a violation of human rights and reproductive freedoms. (BBC,2015)
As a result of the increasing problem caused by air pollution, The “Thirteenth 5-year plan” was introduced in November 2016 by the Chinese government. One of the plans included an ongoing effort to reduce PM 2.5 (atmospheric particulate matters that have diameter less than 2.5 micrometers) in one of China’s ten most polluted cities such as Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei. China proposed to reduce coal usage by 140 million tons by 2020. During the 19th Party Congress which was conducted in 2017, President Xi Jinping stated that China will continue its campaign to prevent and control air pollution and make the skies turn back blue. Around 30 cities in China commit to reducing PM2.5 particles by 15 to 40 percent over the winter of 2017 compared to 2016.
There has been an effort to limit pollution in February 2017, an instruction was made to cancel half-built or coal-fired power plants. In August of 2017, a 143-paged “action plan” to cut PM2.5 concentrations by at least 15% was published by Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP). This plan aimed for better air quality and to have better penalties against people who contribute to pollution. There were other plans to reduce air pollution such as paying factories and businesses to produce and enhance products to reduce pollution. The government also forbade the use of older vehicles as they gave out more smoke. Nationwide, China has closed 40% of all its factories which were all a major contributor to pollution. The city of Linfen experienced a 50% reduction in PM2.5 levels.
In addition, the Chinese government encouraged society to stop using coal and use renewable energy as its more eco-friendly. In January of 2017, China invested $376 billion in renewable power generation such as solar, wind, hydro and nuclear energy, they believe that by using these renewable energy methods, air pollution problems can be reduced. Beijing is focusing on continuing its cooperation with the USA to reduce emissions. In November 2014, the USA and China both agreed and signed an agreement which pledged to reduce carbon emissions by 2030. According to the Environmental Defense Fund ( EDF), during President Trump’s visit to China in 2017, He and President Xi Jinping signed a USA -China alliance agreement which included plans to protect their environment. (Chinapower, 2016)
National policies, programmes, and laws were made by Chinese government to eradicate child labour problems, but the most notably was the Compulsory Education Law and some measures to prevent students drop out from school. Chinese government created system to ensure that children of internal migrant social workers received a sustainable education. The law ensures that every children and adolescent have the right to receive education. Chinese government ensures that the school is free for every children and parents do not need to pay the tuition fee. Every chinese children who turn six years old should enrol in school.
In addition, China introduced the “The PRC Law on the Protection of Minors” . It was introduced in 1996 but then revised again in 2006. It ensures that Chinese government protect all children under the age of 18 (Muscato,2016). However in some rural areas, children prefers to work rather than go to school, they think that going to school is useless. (China.org,2016)