This assignment is based on models of management and how it has impact on organisation. In 18th century the industrial revolution had occurred. The production moves from small scale of production to large factories with large scale production and manager has to control large group of workers. Firstly, this assignment examines the rational goal model. it closely examines human relation model and, it focuses on how these models affects organisation and how management models contribute to organisational success. Depending on the type of organisation, the way management treat their employees and control the business environment, the organisation uses different models of management which is more applicable for them.
Rational Goal Model
Contributors to rational goal models are Frederick Winslow Taylor, Frank Gilbreth and Henry Ford. According to (Lawle, 2016) “Rational goal model is all about techniques pioneered by Frederick Taylor whereby work is broken down into small task which are then measured precisely and designed to be performed in the most efficient manner possible.” rational goal model is about planning, setting goals and emphasize control operations in the internal business organization.
Rational goal model is more applicable for large companies and companies which operates at automobile industries such as Toyota Motor Corporation and Volkswagen AG Company. it focusses mainly on increasing total output of the organisation through becoming more efficient. Toyota is one of the largest automobile company in the world which has around 369,124 of employees worldwide. So, for modern manages it would be very challenging to manage all of the employees. In Toyota their managers use this model of management in the production of their cars.
Rational goal model Taylor scientifically breakdown production process into small, efficient task of work, during his time and motion studies the productivity has increased (Borkowski, 2015). Managers are able to plan, control and can deal with their employees in a way to increase the productivity of the company. In the assembly line at car production division of labours is been used. So, each worker has to carry a specific task such as to install engines, paint the vehicle and inspect the cars. Hence, it enables to increase productivity level of workers at Toyota as well as maintains efficiency and workers can produce more cars with a limited time period. Moreover, Toyota is a large company which produce their cars in bulk production. It enables to gain economics of scale thus increase the average cost of the company.
At same time in rational model Toyota try to fair pay for their employees in relation to the output they produce. By providing education, training and leading the employees into and better way of doing the work therefore this management model can be used, in case to promote harmony between employees and management (Taylor, 2012). Therefore, rational goal model enables organisation climb the ladder of success.
Criticism on Rational Goal Model
However, introduction of other management theories like open system and human relation theory steadily the Taylor’s rational goal model theory was severely criticised. organisation that follows this model has to face downsides. In division of labour employees has to a specific task so they become careless as the do monotony of works. For example, employees who paint the car has to perform that work repeatedly and they become bored hence, it reduces productivity. They would be less committed to work which lead to reduce motivation and create inefficiencies in the organisation. For example, business that makes customise cakes, the rational goal model may not be much applicable for them as they make cakes according to customer preferences and choice.
Additionally, the management would treat their employees as machineries and pressure them to meet the output level set by the management. According to (Mukherjee, 2006) “Scientific management did not appreciate the social context of work and higher needs of workers.” The managers are planning and controlling the production process, which means employees cannot use their own creativity, the work environment becomes inflexible and employees become isolated. Employees may be not satisfied as management being strict, this may lead to increase staff turnover rates yet again effecting production as new employees have to be recruit and trained thus wasting time.
Physiological and social needs such as food, water, shelter belongingness and safety of the employees are not considered in this approach of rational goal model but nowadays employees look for sense of accomplishment rather than having a high pay as a motivator. Hence when organisation focus only on this approach, they might have adverse effect to their individual employees and to whole organisation.