Commencing with media, according to the definition in the website of Quang Tri Electronic Science and Technology Library, media is the manipulation of the body’s capabilities, using the facilities available in nature or artificial tools to express as well as convey information and messages from oneself to others or from one place to another. In addition, media is also known as transmission and storage channels or tools used to store and send information or data. News, entertainment, education, data or advertising messages are widespread through media. Nowadays, there are various kinds of media, such as: Internet, television, newspaper, advertising, social media, etc…
In terms of society, it is defined by sociologists as a group of people with common territory, interaction, and culture. A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societies are composed by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions.
Furthermore, media and society have a strong relationship. More specifically, media and society interact with and affect each other. On the one hand, media impose on society. On the other hand, society makes use of media.
Theorists believe that too much media exposure can lead to knowledge, attitudes or behavioural changes within a society, this is called ‘media effects’ (Kuehn, “Media Effects”).
Media effects research focuses on the manifestations of the influence that the mass media have on people, institutions, society, and culture. Mass media have been hypothesized to have effects across a broad range of contexts. (Perse, E.M. and Lambe, J., 2016)
In the past twenty five years, top five commonly unintended media effects were noted by (McGuire, 1986) (a).the effect of media violence on aggressive behavior, (b) the impact of media images on the social construction of reality, (c) the effects of media bias on stereotyping, (d) the effects of erotic and sexual material on attitudes and objectionable behaviors, and (e) how media forms affect cognitive activity and style. (Perse, E.M. and Lambe, J., 2016)
McQuail (2010) summarized the range of negative and positive effects on children, such as: (a) reduced time for play and exercise, (b) premature sexual knowledge and experimentation, (c) reduction of time spent on schoolwork, (d) learning prosocial attitudes and behaviors, (e) learning about the world beyond their direct experience, and (f) providing a basis for social connections with others. (McQuail, 2010)
Legal scholars struggle with the industry’s responsibilities in instigating criminal behavior in particularly susceptible radio listeners, television and movie viewers, and listeners to popular music who imitate antisocial media actions. (Cooper, 2007) College students who watch reality television sexual relationship shows were more likely to engage in ‘one-night stands’. (Fogel, J. and Kovalenko, L., 2013) Media research is a theoretically rich field. (Perse, E.M. and Lambe, J., 2016)