In present time, the media has become a major source of communication. Television has evolved as potential source of entertainment, as well as important means to get knowledge, information if I say, nowadays television is an indicator, entertainer, a powerful means to pass-time specially for housewives and amazingly providing experience of life Before TV was invented, people used to depend on the news completely from newspapers. Then, Television emerged in America in the late 1940’s. The credit for invention of television cannot be given to any particular inventor who came with the invention of television. It was a combined effortof many inventers some developed something and someone else contributed in some other form of development to make the TV better each time. The appearance of the television was black and white, with only a few channels available. The color varied between black and brown with or without different panels of antenae attached to give signal.
When the television first appeared on display, people were only watching a play on screenwhich had the size of small coins. In 1953 the introduction of the first color TV set was introduced. Most people did not purchase one until the 1960’s. In 1980 television was not a common householdname initially but gradually it gripped its cluches around people and gradually was found in each one’s house. The moment you are home or free our hand reach out for the remote and immediately switches on and slowly it became a daily ritual.of each nad every household.
A number of studies have reported that television programme affect our intrinsic, extrinsic motives and values. Generally , we always blame our kids be it young or teenagers for watching excessive television but in recent scenario we cannot deny the fact that even adults like parents or grandparents also spend there majority of time in watching television which is equally harmful for all the above mentioned age groups. Some studies have found that we spend much time in viewing television so it interfere with housework of women, studies of children and affects even elderly person because they go to bed late which affects total day schedule and the resultant in poor health, less sleep and difficulty in concentration sometimes only when it becomes an addiction so it causes loneliness. People do not like to read and even do not like to talk because less social (Hommelre et. al. 1958; Schramn et al. 1961).
Many researchers also suggest that excessive watching of television reduces access to alternative activities , barriers to viewing can reduce the prolonged engagement. A negative relation has been reported by (Witty, 1967, Scott, 1956, Larblonde, 1966) While Sanidberg (1977) did not found any significant relation but all these studies found this negative effect of T.V. viewing on achievement of children. Psychologists claimed that television has mostly negative impact on our life as television is a passive means of entertainment where ideas and characters are on surface level as its mainly for visual entertainment Their might be some advantages of watching television also as it can give us information about the outside world; there are good programs that help us understand many subjects: science, medicine, the arts, daily happening in and around the world and so on.
Moreover, television helps the old and the sick who can’t leave the house or the hospital.and also has a negative influence on our behaviour and socialization. It undermines important aspects of family results in reduced communication among family members. If something information based is coming then there is a conversation between them and again they are back to regular way. Many researches suggest that watching television it can be said that watching television is an addiction on the average American spend four hours a day watching television. Condry use the termed television addiction as it has got acceptance among parents, educators and journalists. Television consumes large amount of people’s time according to Mars Wraith. There is a shift in terms of viewing television culture, stating that once-mocked “couch potatoes” are now considered more trendy , due to the nature of shows coming on TV , ( Eidler, 2011).
Studies show that after around thirty seconds of viewing TV , a person’s brain “relaxes” in a similar way that it does just before the person falls asleep. This is how television affects the brain and makes people unable to concentrate. People very often give up important activities social relation with family and occupational avoidance just to watch television. Condry stated that it is unclear that to which extent individual’s use for like a drug to change their affects most people use television for relaxation and this is the reason that watching television is rather an addiction.
Singh and Kaur (1997) reported positive impact of television viewing on certain biographical correlates like health, age, income but duration spent in viewing television programmes is always important as well as content of television programme also act as primary source whether it will have a positive impact or negative. A psychological experiment was conducted to know the effect of television viewing on behaviour, this study was based on prime time Spanish language drama (telenovels) which has a viewership of around 1.2 found a positive relation between the amount of watching television watching negative personality attributes among white males. The effect of media watching on behaviour is not only the question of interest but also relevant to lay down policies related to public health issues. A number of studies were conducted to evaluate television watching habits and it’s influence on behaviour and found a positive effect on behaviour of persons.
In a recent study Fancient and Steptoc (2019) tried to find out the effect of television viewing on cognition in older age psychologists have been found interested to study on male and female. This study to explore the association of television viewing with decline of cognitive behaviour and found television viewing creating decline in cognitive behaviour.
In a recent study Takeuchi (2013) found that the more TV children watched the higher level of arousal and higher levels of aggression , the frontal lobe also thickened which is also known as lower verbal reasoning ability. According to Social Psychology , older people struggle to avoid potential negative outcomes which are associated with nostalgic early life experience and trying to make less risky decisions those who viewed television with instrumental motives and with companionship motives were found to have experienced greater parasocial breakup due to distress (Lather & Moyer-Guse, 2011).
It is clear from the above review of the studies that undoubtedly people devote more time in viewing various programmes especially female old aged persons. It is a powerful media to change attitude and behaviour. Studies suggests that olders people experienced TV viewing less enjoyable than younger people. According to the studies television is mainly used to regulate negative emotions.(Dili V.Jeste,2010). Studies also indicates older people reports lower levels of positive emotions while watching TV in comparison to other activities(Estelle & Edgar Levi 2010) But there is a little research concerning the preference of various television programmes, to spend time and its effect on emotional satisfaction, so the present study was designed.
The following problems were selected:
- To study difference in viewing various television programs
- female and male subjects.
- To study the difference in time spending in viewing television programmes.
- To study the effect of television viewing on emotional adjustment of male and female subjects.
- There is no difference in male and female subjects in viewing various television programmes.
- There is no difference in male and female to spent time in viewing the television programmes.
- There will be no difference on emotional satisfaction male and female subjects due to watching television programmes.
A self preferred questionnaire was used to study preference television programmes viewed by the subjects, the time spent by them per day for 15 days.
Five types of the programme selected in the study are as follow:
- Entertainment programmes related to music
- Educational – Quiz, Discovery
- Emotional Programmes – Related to family serials, daily soaps, romantic series, etc
- Health related to Yoga, meditations
- Social problems – like crime, suspense
Total one hundred twenty subjects were used. These were divided into two groups consisting of 60 male and 60 females, were selected at random from Jumeira Lake Tower (JLT) and Discovery Dubai, UAE.
Total raw score was calculated of each subject and the obtained data was analysed using t-test.
As mentioned earlier the various television programmes were taken in the study, i.e., programmes related to entertainment, educational, emotional, health and social on three point scale viz. always, occasionally and never. Thus, these alternatives were given 3, 2, and 1 score to each item. Total score was calculated for two groups. These total score presented in table appendices. Mean, S.D. and t-values are calculated to test the significance of difference among mean score by male and female subjects.
It is clear from the above table that mean score for entertainment programmes for female was 35.29 and 25.70 for male so it’s clear that female gave much time for entertain programmes than male, while for educational programmes the mean score for female is 4.96 and 11.88 for male, which indicates that male devote more time watching educational programmes than female subjects. The mean score for health related programmes for male is 3.50 and for female is 5.47, so it indicates that health related programmes female viewer is high. For social programmes the mean score for male and female is almost similar. For emotional programmes the mean score for male is 7.88 and for female is 3.49, it denotes the fact that male person find much emotional satisfaction than female. To test the significance of difference among means ‘t’ value were calculated.
The above table indicates that there is a significant difference in the preference of viewing various television programmes in male and female in all programmes. Male subjects have given first preference for entertainment, second for educational, third preference to emotional, fourth to social and fifth to health related programmes. While female subjects gave first preference to entertainment, second to social, third to health, fourth to education and fifth preference to emotional programmes. Thus, it is clear that both male and female differ in preferences to watching television programmes and difference in mean score was found to be significant at .05 level. So the null hypothesis is rejected and it is interpreted that there is significant difference in watching various television programmes among male and female subjects.
Mean, S.D. were calculated and ‘t’ was used to check the significance of difference among mean time spent by male and female subjects to watch various television programme.
From the above table it is clear that these two groups differ in spending the time watching various television programmes per day as the ‘t’ values are found to be significant. So, the null hypothesis rejected as above findings indicate that there is significant difference to spend time in viewing various programmes, so it can be established that there is difference in male and female to spend time in watching television. A glance at table shows that female spend bit more time per day then male. Female spend more than 1½ hour per day, while male spend nearly 1 hour per day viewing entertainment programmes on television. In viewing social programmes male gave 1 hour per day while female give more than 2 hours per day. In viewing physical & health, female and male subjects give almost 1 hour per day and ½ hour as for male and female subjects.
On the basis of above results, it can be concluded that both the groups male and female spend nearly equal time in viewing the television per day. Both the groups spend much time in entertainment programmes and serials then other types of programmes. In this list there are different types programme, e.g. Educational, vocational, physical and health programmes. Old aged persons lack exercise find difficult to pass time, and the social interaction is also not that much so they prefer to watch television. There were major contradictions found between viewing of television and theemotional satisfaction obtained from them Similar findings have also emerged in the relationship between TV viewing and overall well-being.
The studies suggsests that television viewing can provide a broader picture about the situation where providing variety of choices do not increase or address emotional satisfaction. After reviewing available studies and researches related to the satisfaction related to TV viewing options, main focus was on two aspects which were related emotional satisfaction and its effects . Within each of these two aspects, we consider both accurate and relavant to time spent in viewing in terms of quantity time and content watched on television. We also found various researches in different social sciences providing evidence related to more time spent in television viewing.
The ability to use television for a person depends upon the purpose and the degree of choice available to the most individuals with cable so they are more able to use television because they have a wish to select the material. Watching television has effects on the person in the way what we do and how we do. This influence comes about because of how the persons learn by observation and imitations because of they respond to certain kind of serial material. Television influences the belief system thinking about the world and it does because we have maker this type of attitude. The cognitive effect of television is based on the structure of attitude beliefs judgement and on the way in which these cognitive structures are acquired (Condry). One of the most important forces in young people lies in television watching because there are a number of salient attractive role models (Hoffman, Levnon & Tooney).
Various studies focused majorly on three factors that reflect feelings related to positive emotions:
- suspence and thrill
- sadness or negative emotions and other factors that reflected majorly on the role of emotional media experiences within the broader area related to individuals’ social and cognitive needs
- assumptions related to emotional experiences
- emotional engagement with characters
- social sharing of emotions, and
- release of emotions.in different ways.
Various results indicated issues including entertainment audiences’ voluntary exposure to unpleasant feelings, and the role of entertainment in psychosocial need emotional satisfaction and personal well being.
Television transmits in accurate stereo type image of how people behave, communicate in various occupation and portrays women and ethnic minorities in less glamorous & prestigious occupation.
Despite the fact that family still does special things together and television diminishes their ordinary daily life. Together, because it a regular scheduled and rather mechanized daily routine (Evra). Studies suggested that television presence is a effective way to alleviate older peoples loneliness. In addition, the findings from relationships among emotional variables suggested potential marketing strategies are shaped according to this age of viewers.
Everyone of us grows hearing variety of fairy tales moral value stories since childhood and observe it on the screen and develops a strong impression on mind which eventually forms our beliefs and attitudes and becomes the foundation for the maximum of the perceived different types of relationships which we experience in our life span, different types of crime and thriller cartoons, games are generally related be associated with violence love related are associated with romantic emotions. Whatever we observe it on T.V. and absorb it for a whole life in our mindset and develops ours beliefs and attitudes for maximum of relationships based on it.
All the concepts related to good and bad behavior, romantic relationships, conversations,cultural depiction and mutual love and understanding all shapes up depending upon all programs viewed, these all shapes our happiness and satisfaction when we find it similar to all the perceived concepts and feel very happy, relaxed and emotionally satisfied but the moment we realize its different we start becoming unhappy, sad and depressed developing high level of emotional dissatisfaction and increase in negative emotions and loneliness . Television is an accepted approved and readily accessible source of information and it both creates and reinforces models of social behaviour style of dress, idiomatic language, attitude toward gender and behaviour that define not only individual behaviour, family behaviour but also the behaviour of society (Cohen).
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