Based on the data of Australian Bureau of Statistics, in 2014-2015, 18.3 per cent of Australian nearly 4.2 million adults are having diseases related to Circulation system where 1.2 million are suffering from cardiovascular diseases (Health.gov.au, 2016). Cardiovascular diseases (CD) include blood vessels and heart-related problems that create stroke, coronary artery diseases, heart muscle and valve diseases, abnormal rate of hearth rhyming and heart attacks. Heart diseases can occur through excessive consumption of tobacco, high fats and sugar containing food, alcohol, drugs etc. Diabetes, obesity, hypertension, lesser work out all these give a chance to heart diseases too. Many Australians are prone to death due to heart diseases like 43477 persons died in 2017 and this disease is killing an Australian in every 12 minutes (Heartfoundation, 2018). According to WHO (World Health Organization), 17.9 million people die per year from cardiovascular diseases which are 31% of all recorded deaths throughout the world (WHO, 2019). This report is going to provide health problems related to heart diseases on the Australian populous from lower socio economic background. It will explain how the socio economic determinants affect mortality and standard of living due to smoking and not engaged in working out. For preventing heart disease, how Australian can be benefitted by other sectors working as the intervention will be explained.
Effects on mortality and quality of life
People of Australia who have a poor background from both social and economic criteria are prone to have poorer health conditions with a higher chance of cardiovascular diseases. As they are less concerned about the health hazards, they consume more alcohol and smoke tobacco, which in turn affect the heart. Cardiovascular diseases like stroke, heart attacks mainly can affect mortality rate and lowering the quality of life. Mortality includes the number of deaths which are occurring in a fixed time period within a group of population. The lower socioeconomic group of Australian are facing a high threat of mortality as they do not have proper housing or sanitation or much wealth to intake quality food that can resist cardiovascular diseases. People with a low level of physical activity thus affects health immensely and helps to increase the mortality rate. Australians who live in low socio-economic areas live 3 years less than the Australians who are living hygienic, high-quality areas.
In 2014-2015 the 20% of the Australian population from lower background status were more prone by 1.6 times having at least two chronic diseases like Alzheimer, Arthritis, diabetes, cancer, asthma. The people with high socio economic background had an overall 13% reduction in mortality rate which is nearly 54000 deaths lesser than the deaths which were recorded in Australia (Aihw.gov.au, 2016).Quality of life includes higher Gross domestic product, employments in the society, higher life expectancy, proper housing, higher education, pollution free environment to live in, and strong transportation and communication systems.
The social and economic status of the Australian people help to determine the quality of life as the people with low income, and a lesser ability cannot afford better health facilities. They are getting lesser treatment which degrades their life expectancy due to strokes or heart attacks and decreases the quality of life. The people who have lesser income are more prone to degrading life quality as they cannot afford proper housing or better transportation system. With the lesser educational background and status, they cannot access primary health care, screening testing for measuring BP or lipid to lower the efficiency of occurring strokes or heart attacks. In Australia, people with lesser economic status can spend a fewer amount of money which is 5.1% on their total expenditure, based on a week. Children of poor socioeconomic families were more prone to inhale tobacco smoking inside the house which is 7.2% greater than the high profiled families in 2013 (Savarese & Lund, 2017).
Determinants of health
Socio economic status of an individual determines the food quality, whether nutritious or not, hygienic sanitation and proper housing facility, proper health care facilities to combat the heart diseases. Health determinants are very crucial to choose how it affects the healthy living of an Australian. Education, a socio economic determinant helps to carry better health structure throughout the life as it does not help people providing job opportunity with income security but also giving better housing to live and health care facilities to access (Benjamin, 2018). A better-educated person is less prone to cardiovascular diseases like heart attacks or strokes as they know better about the prevention methods of cardiovascular disease.
Educated persons do a regular checkup and assess screening test due to their concern and knowledge about a health condition (McDonald, Kalisch Ellett, Barratt, & Caughey, 2015). People with lesser education do not have proper awareness and cannot understand the precaution measures of heart disease. High status of occupation, wealth can allow people with higher accessibility of goods and services providing better food and housing with more healthcare options and this will also reduce heart attacks, strokes whereas people from the low economic status will be a sufferer for not having fat or cholesterol-free diet hence more occurrence of heart diseases. This high living standard with good quality of health controls the incidence of occurring heart diseases, the prevalence of this risk, survival of life, mortality rate and morbidity of the Australian. On the other hand, lack of education among people from the lower class of society and economy faced the consequences of cardiovascular diseases as they are unable to understand and take precaution.
Heart diseases can be checked through some ways like controlling blood pressure, gaining balanced weight, keeping one’s cholesterol level much lower, taking proper nutritious diet. (Faganello, et al., 2016). Australians who have a poor quality of living due to lesser income and social background cannot afford proper health care facilities. Education sector can be effective as it makes a person more aware of the heart disease that may occur due to consuming alcohol and smoking tobacco. They have to be properly educated so that they can be employed and get fair chances to rise their standard of living. They have to be educated enough that they understand the value of curtailing tension and having nutritious food for preventing heart diseases. With better education structure, they will consume less quantity of food which contains fat and sugar and exercise more as they become more aware of the effects of these types of food. Patients having education, are aware of the risk and they will understand interventions of public health are required highly (Banke-Thomas, Madaj, Charles, & van den Broek, 2015).
Heart diseases can be treated or diagnosed through Electrocardiogram, stress test, echocardiogram, MRI, CT scan etc. But to introduce a preventive measure for socio-economic status education to identify risk factors plays a great role to reduce mortality and increase the quality of life. Education is a preventive measure to combat heart diseases as it creates more awareness within people. Education provides people with the judging power about the consumption of alcohol or smoking is not good for the heart. Education provides the matter of public health interventions which include screening can be achieved through health professionals. General practitioners provide cardiovascular screening with the help of literacy regarding health and taking incentives (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2017). Introducing free heart screening can be carried out in a local pharmacy. To access the services Australians should have basic education so that they can visit a local pharmacy for their own health which is provided free of cost. Receiving BP testing or education regarding better lifestyle can promote lesser chances of heart diseases, hence lesser mortality with a good quality of life. If a person is educated, then they will understand the values of child immunizations. The new interventions of health education in primary care services thus helps to improve cardiovascular factors. Education also helps in scoring cardiac risk and the importance of daily physical workouts.
From the study, it has been connoted that lower socio-economic determinants like poor health, poor educational background, and lower economic status are affecting the health with cardiovascular diseases. The Australians are suffering from heart attacks, diseases related to the coronary artery, muscle and valves of heart, abnormal rhythm of heart, heart failure which increase mortality rate and lowering down the quality of life. It has been depicted that education can be provided to take effective actions for preventing cardiovascular disease with the help of intervening public health and primary health care facilities of screening, blood pressure testing, lipid testing etc. A pilot program is introduced so that the Australian can get the motivation to go to the local sporting clubs and work out there for several hours. As cardiovascular disease has been led as a prominent reason that people died in Australia, it should be measured and checked. With properly diagnosis measures and preventive action, this disease should be checked.