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Definition of Genetics and Genes

  • Updated July 27, 2023
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Genetics is the study of how genes in living organisms create characteristics, or traits, and how those properties are inherited. Genes are specific nucleotide sequences that code for particular proteins. Genes are transferred from one generation to the next through the meiosis and sexual reproduction process.

Firstly, gene therapy is an experimental technique for curing or preventing diseases using genes. This technique allows doctors to treat a disease by injecting a gene into the cells of patients rather than using drugs or surgery in the future. Gene therapy also includes inserting a healthy and functional copy of the defective gene into the body’s target cells. Gene therapy typically acts to remove a defective gene in the target cells by adding a new gene into the genome. In the field, there are two types of gene therapy which are germ line and somatic gene therapy. For the germ line gene therapy, it involves genetic material alteration in gamete cells that will be heritable and can be transferred to the next generation.

Meanwhile, somatic gene therapy involves the injection of the therapeutic gene into the patient’s somatic cells which only will affect the particular patient and is not passed to the descendants patient. In gene therapy, there are three primary methods that can be applied when treating diseases. The first is the insertion of genes in which the genetic material is inserted without any effort to integrate it into chromosomes to the target cells. The second is Gene repair techniques that remove faulty DNA fragments in damaged genes at their usual chromosomal site. Furthermore, Gene replacement techniques that require the abnormal gene to be deleted from its chromosome and replaced with a normal gene.

On the other hand, DNA fingerprinting is a chemical test that indicates a human or other living things to have a genetic makeup. It is called as fingerprint because it is very rare that any two people would have exactly the same DNA information and would have exactly the same physical fingerprint as any two people would have.The technique was developed by British geneticist Alec Jeffreys in 1984 after he founds that certain highly variable DNA sequences which do not contribute to gene functions, are replicated within genes.

However, genetic fingerprints also can be used in forensic criminals for investigation purposes. A very limited amount of DNA is sufficiently and accurately to classify persons involved in an offence. Similarly, fingerprinting with DNA may and does exonerate innocent persons from crimes sometimes even crimes committed years later. A decomposing body also can be classified using DNA fingerprinting. Whereas it will easily and reliably answer another person’s query about the relationship.

In addition to the adoption of children to find their parents at birth or to settle paternity suits, DNA fingerprint was used in inheritance cases to create a connection. In the medical field, DNA fingerprinting can match the tissues of organ donors with those of people who need transplantation and identify diseases that passed through the family. Moreover, it also can help to find cures for those diseases, called hereditary conditions.

Furthermore, Direct-to-consumer genetic testing is a test where the genetic tests are sold directly to consumers through television, advertisement or internet. Nevertheless, the tests also can be purchased online or in stores. Customers are sending a DNA sample to the company and collecting the findings either directly from a secure website or in a written report. In certain cases,the finding may be explained and questions answered by a genetic counselor or other healthcare provider.

Moreover, pharmacogenomics is the study of how genetic makeup determines the body breaks down or metabolizes certain medications while pharmacogenetics is defined as the study of genetic variations that cause a variabular drugs response, including the genetic polymorphism of drug transporters, drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug receptors. Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics have been widely recognized as essential steps towards personalized medicine.

They deal with genetically determined variants of how individuals respond to drugs and promise to revolutionize drug therapy by tailoring it to individual genotypes. Pharmacogenomic testing can provide information about many medications, but not all medications have genetic information that can be used for prescribing purposes. By knowing this information, physicians can ensure patient stake the right dose of a particular medication.

Last but not least, Human Genome Project is an international scientific research project designed to study and identify all of the genes in the human genome, to determine the base pair sequences in human DNA, and to store this information computer databases.The method used to define the human genome includes techniques of cyctogenetic, physical and genetic mapping.

A variety of strategies were used to identify human genes, particulary those genes who responsible for the disease. Once the disease is identified,new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures can be developed using this information. Human Genome Project had been applied in the field of molecular medicine. In this field, it could include better diagnosis of disease, early detection of diseases and gene therapy and control systems for drugs.

In conclusion, genetic is the branch of medicine which has the huge potential for researches, which will help in prevention early diagnosis and cure the diseases. As most of the diseases has a more or less of genetic component it will help in creating more productive and disease free society.

References

Cite this paper

Definition of Genetics and Genes. (2020, Dec 16). Retrieved from https://samploon.com/definition-of-genetics-and-genes/

FAQ

FAQ

What is the current definition of a gene?
A gene is a sequence of DNA that contains instructions for the production of a specific protein or RNA molecule. The current definition of a gene includes regulatory regions, introns, and other non-coding sequences that contribute to gene expression and function.
What is the difference between genetics and genes?
Genetics is the study of how traits are passed down from generation to generation. Genes are the units of inheritance that carry the information for these traits.
What is the simple definition of genetics?
The study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics. The science of genes, heredity, and the variation of inherited characteristics.
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