Family and parental support structures and encouragement systems greatly impact the development of student college choice and engagement. Family and parents contribute considerable factors of importance, especially in aligning student education values, decisions and perceptions in reviewing higher education options. Students inherently draw from parental cues and suggestions in creating and proposing educational agendas. Parents practices of endorsing college attendance involve extensive discussions surrounding the topic and taking an active role throughout the process. Different determinants play a significant part in prompting student college selections and availability of opportunity including, parental education levels, motivation, socioeconomic status, college knowledge/information accessibility and ethnic background, causing gaps among academia decisions across diverse groups. Underrepresented groups, such as first-generation college students, marginalized individuals and low-income families experience numerous barriers in involvement of children’s college plans. It’s essential to recognize that parents aren’t singular exemplars for pupils but also siblings, grandparents, cousins, aunts and uncles remain good examples in college going. Social mobility and reproduction themes encompass issues embedded in this phenomenon in pertaining to cultural, economic and social capital families possess. These elements of parental involvement are aspects of successful or restrained student college choice. Effective parental leadership attributes emerge as primary themes throughout literature and research study analysis. Student college choice and involvement components differ systematically depending upon parental and family variables of inspiration and engagement, particularly in relation to varying degrees of status and capital procurement.
Interaction of Capitals
Capital interactions of parental involvement within education are ingrained in potential outcomes for children. Capitals are intertwined in multiple forms including social, economic and cultural capital in determining gains in college accessibility, eligibility and choice. In the current social climate trends have shifted and obtaining a college degree is essential in progressing careers. Gao and Ng (2017), suggest the interaction of capital effects in family background reflects greatly on entry into college and relied heavily upon pupils’ educational objectives. Economic capital refers to assessing family income, cultural capital relates to familial values implanted in educational acquirement and lastly social capital is attributed to parental college knowledge foundations and the extent of social networks accumulated. The three types of capital are its own separate entity, but each accrue from parental capital and depends upon circumstances surrounding them. Both negative or positive connotations develop for students of divergent backgrounds, especially being granted acceptance to college. Additional examples of economic capital include, family salary, assets and investments. Cultural capital variables involve parental associations within educational level, expectations, motivations and amounts of participation in student’s college aspirations. Social capital is predominantly based on relationships parents secure with external forces, by forming tight bonds and actively performing with students, high schools, coursework, colleges, teachers, community members and other parents (Gao &Ng, 2017). The combination of high levels of social, economic and cultural capital prove extensive benefactors in affluent parental influences on college student choice, but also limit underprivileged students lacking capital the accessibility into elite institutions. Drawing from the researchers conclusions, I believe college choice pathways are unequal and opposite of the “American Dream” in social mobility through educational attainment and rather reinforce social reproduction. Further exploration of existing parent-student and conceptual models and research methodologies, I think would advance greater understanding of the issues pertaining around parental background effects on student achievement. Therefore, tackling deep-rooted problems of stratification, instead of currently ignoring or making minor adjustments in policy agenda because college going is essential for good career’s nowadays.
Enrollment rates are distinguishably different for students containing dissimilar socioeconomic status and the gap between the wealthy and less affluent persists. Perna (2006), model derives from perspectives entrenched of student college choice shaped by multiple layers of frameworks, including determinates of parental involvement. Parental involvement controls consist of engagement in school activities, creating a college savings accounts, going on college visits and parent-child discussions associated with education topics. According to Coleman (1988), parents promote and build social capital for their children as opposed to Bourdieu approach, explaining resource limitations imposed on marginalized groups (Bourdieu, 1986). Generally speaking, capital interaction studies concluded parental capital attainment predicts student aspirations in educational planning and choice. Gao and Ng (2017), model validated a strong correlation between social and cultural capital and null results connecting social and economic capital interactions. Therefore, suggesting some forms of capital merging, but reinforcing ideas of continuing future studies examining relationships between other categories of capital and its effects of enrollment to colleges. I think capital interaction models mirror practices colleges strive for because of increasing privatization demonstrating a consumer-based culture. Schools visions and traditions are reproducing class structures and failing in accountability of constraints in my opinion and promoting divided in class structure. However, I believe this problem isn’t solely on higher education, but emerges from K-12 schools beginning with residential, academic and income variations, perhaps an integrated B-16 education system is a satisfactory approach. Parental dedication is certainly an ongoing and main trend in educational attainment and questions remain on strategies to bridge the widening gaps.