Personality development in children is developed through biological and social influences. This can best me illustrated by looking at, “…significant relationships. The development of social understanding, the growth of personality. And the development of social and emotional competence (Thompson, 2013).”
A child’s temperament is partially determined by genetics, but environmental influences also play. A large role in the development of personality. “Temperament is a foundation for personality growth (Rothbart, 2011). Temperament levels can be affected by the support level of prenatal care. How well a child’s temperamental qualities fit with the characteristics of their environment. And how a child’s biological disposition has interplayed with their experiences (Chess & Thomas, 1999).
Self-concept involves children’s thoughts and feelings about themselves. It is essentially how a child “views themselves”. Children rely on early relationships with caregivers to start the healthy development of their self-concept. In order for a child to thrive in relationships later on in life, this process of self-concept is crucial. A child’s idea of self-concept may differ across different societies and cultures. However having realistic expectations, patience and sensitive guidance with infants and toddlers will help. Them learn to manage their emotions and develop a healthy sense of self-concept (Illinois).
The development of gender and gender identity is seen as an interaction between social, biological, and representational factors (Ruble, Martin, & Berenbaum, 2006). Children learn about their gender and gender roles from parents, caregivers, peers, family members and other members of society who they interact with on a regular basis. This is also how they develop the attributes they associate with maleness and femaleness. Early influences are important, but experiences throughout childhood, adolescence, and even adulthood can continue to effect how a person defines gender and gender roles.