Background A student’s responsibility is to study. Student responsibility occurs when students take an active role in their learning by recognizing they are accountable for their academic success. (Jamestown community College). Students are given enough time to study. Despite the given time, students sometimes couldn’t absorb all the information taught by their educators. Sometimes, students…
We all know the feeling: we are staring at a blank word document preparing to type another English paper, but we just need to grab a quick drink first. Before we know it, that “drink” has turned into a Grey’s Anatomy marathon Doesn’t this sound familiar? This is a college student’s worst enemy: it’s called…
Wait, is a portrayal of my life. I am a procrastinator, and I believe I have a serious procrastinating problem I cannot remember when I start this kind of problem, nor do I know why I have the problem I can only guess, maybe it is just my nature, or maybe it is because the…
Just one more episode, Josh thought to himself as he loaded up another hour-long episode of House of cards on his laptop It was noon and the assignment was dated at midnight. Three weeks prior his teacher had given out the short story assignment the AP English students were tasked with writing a short story…
Aclock reads half past eleven, a student sits tirelessly at his keyboard scrabbling together nonsense. Thoughts of regret enter his mind, and the weight of procrastination creeps up behind his acing shoulders. His fingers tremble, his eyes twitch, and his mind withers to a staggering halt. Time seems to be slipping away as the ever-nearing…
In a dark room, illuminated by a sole computer monitor, David, a 20-year-old college student, is seen furiously typing up a report. The clicking sound of the keyboard was mixed with moans of frustration and regret With one eye on the clock and cursing his slowness, David sped up his rate of typing more in…
According to Milana Knezevic, she stated that procrastination is the number one worst enemy of students; is is somehow a virus that eats away productivity of students. An American study estimated that 70% of students showed signs of unhealthy habit of procrastination. “Students are biologically and socially predisposed to put off until tomorrow what we…
Academic procrastination was defined as to leave academic tasks, such as preparing for exams, doing homework, and writing term papers to the last minute and to feel discomfort out of this (Milgram, Mey-Tal & Levinson, 1998). One of the most prevalent situation in which procrastination transpires is studying for examinations (Solomon and Rothblum, 1984), and…
Procrastination may be defined as the way of delaying the task that may result the student in subjective discomfort and other problem (Solomon & Rothblum, 1984) or an action or behavior that is not beneficial for the person engaged in it. (Balkins, Duro & Duro, 2009). Burka & Yuen (1982) state that academic procrastination has…
I am a chronic procrastinator. I put almost everything off until the last minute. Schoolwork, daily tasks, and even this speech. I’m here to prove to you that it isn’t such a bad thing, and for some people, it can actually work better than completing the work right away. A lot of people are procrastinators,…
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What Causes Procrastination
Procrastination usually described as a harmful behavior and mentality in previous studies, it had been defined as “the act of needlessly delaying tasks to the point of experiencing subjective discomfort” (Solomon & Rothblum, 1984), “self-control problems arise when preferences are inconsistent across time or context” (Ainslie, 1975; Loewenstein, 1996, as cited in Ariely & Wertenbroch, 2002), “a prevalent and pernicious form of self-regulatory failure that is not entirely understood” (Steel, 2007). It was estimate that 95% of university students engage in procrastination (Ellis and Knaus, 1977, as cited in Solomon & Rothblum, 1984).
Solomon & Rothblum (1984) found that procrastination was not correlated with anxiety or assertion, but correlated with depression, irrational cognitions, low self-esteem, and delayed study behavior. Steel (2007) found that neuroticism, rebelliousness, and sensation seeking show weak correlation with procrastination. Strong and consistent predictors of procrastination were task aversiveness, task delay, self-efficacy, impulsiveness, as well as conscientiousness and its facets of self-control, distractibility, organization, and achievement motivation.
Johnson and Bloom (1995) used the five-factor model of personality to conduct research, found that procrastination positively correlated with Neuroticism, and negatively correlated with Conscientiousness. Onwuegbuzie (2004) found that procrastination related significantly to worth of statistics, interpretation anxiety, test and class anxiety, computational self-concept, fear of asking for help, and fear. We can find some of the factors above were mutually conflicted, this may due to the contamination of self-report measures. Steel, Brothen & Wambach (1999) study found that, using self-report to measure procrastination would likely reflects a self-assessment influenced by actual behavior but also significantly contaminated by self-concept. Therefore, we are hard to determine which factors really have correlation with procrastination. However, even we cannot determine the factors of procrastination, the behavioral and psychological influences can be tracked and changed in the previous studies. Ferrari and Tice (2000) found that, if a task was identified as a fun or pleasurable activity, procrastination will happen.
Procrastination only generate when the task was identified as evaluative. Tice and Baumeister (1997) found that procrastinators reported lower stress than non-procrastinators early in the semester, but they reported higher stress late in the term. O’Donoghue and Rabin (2001) found that people will give up completing an attractive option and plan to complete a more attractive option even it will never be completed. Therefore, providing additional options to a non-procrastinator can produce procrastination, a person may procrastinate the important goals rather than unimportant ones. According to these studies, we can see the techniques to measure procrastination and the methods to manipulate procrastination are mature and effective.