Motivation and Emotion

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As the parent raising a child with a socially undesirable temperament, I would raise the child within his/ her temperament. Temperament involves the biological and relatively stable differences among people that are portrayed through behavioral and emotional responses. Essentially, temperament remains stable from childhood until adolescence. Micalizzi et al. (2017) stated that children with a difficult temperament have various negative developmental outcomes in the personality, socialization and behaviors. Difficult temperament among children includes social withdrawal, negative emotions, lack of attention, impulsivity and low positivity. Children with difficult temperaments are more likely to elicit negative parenting due to their increasing demands.

Difficult parenting has a negative impact on the child’s temperament. That difficult temperament in children forces the caretakers to use a coercive and controlling parenting style while parents with children who have a positive temperament are warmer to the children. Micalizzi et al. (2017) noted negative parenting exacerbates the likelihood of children with difficult temperament being fearful, irritable and angry. This indicates that there is a reciprocal relationship between difficult temperament among children and negative parenting which is mutually exclusive. In this case, both parties redirect, stimulate and augment each other’s behaviors.

Usually, parents adjust their styles per the characteristics displayed by their children. Parents raising highly emotionally unstable children are more strict, use harsh disciplining styles, hostile, critical and authoritarian. Laukkanen et al. (2014) posited that parents who are raising hyperactive and impulsive children, on the other hand, are strict disciplinarians while parents raising children with low inhibition are overprotective hence children lack autonomy. Due to the negative results associated with negative parenting on children with a difficult temperament, I would not use coercion in order to force the child to conform with the culturally accepted emotions and behaviors.

I believe that the best way to deal with children with a difficult temperament would be teaching them to cope with their sensitive behaviors and emotions. When such children are not taught on how to deal with their sensitivities, they become frustrated, confused and hopeless. In addition, they will have to deal with constant criticism which has a negative effect on their development. Encouraging self-awareness and coping strategies enable children to understand that they can change their temperaments for the better. In addition, I would focus on the child’s strengths as opposed to their weaknesses and acknowledge and appreciate their positive and adaptable behaviors. I would also be patient, empathetic, seek strategies to interpret the temperament traits and also involve children in predictable schedules.

Qualities such as warmth, genuineness, empathy, acceptance and confirmation of the other person’s capacity for self-determination are common in interpersonal relationships. Interpersonal relationships involve the interdependent interactions among participants where their behaviors affect the outcomes of the relationship. Drago (2013) suggested that people interact with each other in a series of interactions that are interrelated and affect one another. These interactions, intimate and interdependent or distant and lack dependence. Close relationships are strong, frequent, involves a level of interdependence and lasts over a considerable period of time while the distant relationship is infrequent, weak and periodic. The type of interpersonal relationship adopted by individuals is determined by their personality types.

Besides, the internet age has given rise to a state whereby individuals are more engaged in virtual relationships as opposed to the traditional face to face interactions. In this case, individuals interact anonymously over various media platforms. Drago (2013) pointed out that the internet has majorly altered how people form interpersonal relationships and how individuals interact with each other. The traditional relationships were established and maintained through face-to-face relationships. The current age has seen increased use of the internet in virtual platforms. As such, more people are using social media platforms to create relationships, engage intellectually, exchange knowledge, develop and maintain romantic relationships and share emotional support.

Submissiveness and dominance are the two ways in which people differ in their interpersonal behaviors. Warmth and coldness are also important factors that dictate social behavior. People with negative interpersonal behaviors are socially egocentric (cold) as compared to the warm individuals. Boyd et al. (2013) suggested that an individual’s warmth or coldness towards others during interpersonal relationships is an important predictor of personality disorders, aggressive behaviors, lack of social support and criminality. While face-to-face communication offers individuals the physical proximity thus enhancing the relationships created, the internet restricts physical presence and social cues. As such, communication in social media platforms helps in facilitating interpersonal interactions.

People with negative interpersonal characteristics are more autonomous while the ones with positive interpersonal aspects are more nurturing. Cold people do not trust others while warm individuals view others as more trustworthy. Boyd et al. (2013) pointed that cold individuals usually seek to isolate themselves from the other people while warm individuals are more dependent on others and are motivated to engage in actions that please the others. Besides, warm people are more communal and more appreciative of others goals to accommodate others in everyday life while cold people are less communal and egocentric in their relations with others. Since more warm people are likely to engage in online-based interactions, they create valuable friendships, games, hobbies, romance and chats that serve to foster positive interactions.

If I was to teach a college level course of motivation and emotion I would convey a course with the following objectives:

The course will provide a series of theories and research studies to support the psychological aspects of human motivation and emotion. This course will use student interaction assignments, visual and auditory inputs in order to bring a better understanding of the social, cognitive, and biological perspectives of motivation and emotions. This course will investigate how understanding human emotions and motivations relate to achievement, relationships, addictions, and creativity.

The following are some theories that I would present during the course:

  • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory

The objectives of the course would be to evaluate the different levels of need that individuals tend to seek satisfaction for their needs. Badubi (2017) stated that Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is made of five levels such as physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization needs.

  • Cognitive evaluation theory

The goal of this topic would be the evaluation of the causal effects of perceived competence on intrinsic motivation. Positive feedback increased while negative feedback decreased both intrinsic motivation and perceived competence Robert J. Vallerand, Greg Reid (1984).

  • The expectancy theory

The objective of this topic would be the evaluation of how actions are associated with outcomes. Yang & Jiang (2010) stated that individuals choose to engage in actions thought to determine the various alternatives that are associated with uncertain outcomes.

  • Mcgregor’s X and Y theories

In this case, the goal of the course would be evaluating the various groups of people based on their personalities. Hogan & Hogan (2004) posited that while the X-group needs to be controlled and avoids responsibility, the Y group are emotionally stable.

  • McClelland’s need achievement theory

The goal of this perspective would be to evaluate how some people succeed through seeking their achievement as opposed to rewards (Saari et al. 2004).

  • Goal setting theory

The objective of using this theory would be to assess how self-efficacy and the need for achievement are positively inter-related to goal level. As a result they are positively related with performance when combined with abilities and self-efficacy Phillips J., Gully, S. M. (1997).

  • Hulls Drive theory

In this case, the topic’s goal would be explaining how high motivation versus low motivation could be predicted before it occurred. This theory would be useful to understand how the drive arises from a series of needs Hebb D. O. (1955).

  • Vrooms expectancy theory

The goal of this topic would be analyzing how behavior results from the choices that people have and how they prioritize their activities (Kumar & Singh, 2011).


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Motivation and Emotion. (2021, Jul 27). Retrieved from https://samploon.com/motivation-and-emotion/

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