Pythagoras invented the word philosophy, which can be described as the research of basic and general issues about life, understanding, values, reason and language. There are different main branches of philosophy namely; logic, metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, and aesthetics. Metaphysics addresses the basic issues of reality. The epistemology deals with our knowledge idea, how we learn and what we understand. Esthetics is the field of philosophy that includes beauty and art ideas. Ethics or moral philosophy concerning human values and how people should act and conduct themselves. Logic is the study of valid reasoning and demonstration principles and criteria.
The philosophy of science, it is concerned with all the hypotheses, foundations, techniques, consequences of science and the use and merit of science including the natural sciences such as physics, chemistry, and biology. Physics was created as a discipline in the 17th century, followed by chemistry in the late 18th century, then by biology as early as 1859, when Darwin released a book entitled On the Origin of Species. However, two questions were asked as sciences established their distinct existence. These questions are: Do science leave anything to philosophy when “spinning away”? If so, why are they leaving the business unfinished? The response to the first issue is: yes, each science leaves philosophy with unanswered issues. The reply to the second question: Many individuals dismiss natural science results and theories in favour of other religious convictions, and some of the world’s facts are always beyond science’s reach. Disciplines like biology left philosophical questions that are difficult to prevent. This is the primary reason why biology philosophy has come to be one of philosophy’s most lively and openly visible subjects. Another reason is that biology leaves questions appropriate to many human issues to philosophy.
Biological philosophy is the branch of science philosophy dealing with biological understanding. Biology is a faulty and experimental discipline. This is because, with ideal certainty, experiments, observation, and information collection can never create the reality of a hypothesis. Biologists, like other researchers, are confident that while their results are always subject to revision and enhancement, their technique, which is the scientific method, is the only way to ensure that their results are increasingly reliable. Do the biology philosophy agenda involve conflicts within biology as well as between biologists and other researchers about what the “science technique” is? In biology, physical sciences differ from that. Finally, there are controversies as to whether there is anything like the scientific method. Darwinian theory is central to biology philosophy. One reason for this is its significance to issues that almost all thinking individuals are interested in. Another is the theory’s very large amount of evidence that is a claim that other theories cannot make.
Under four headings he called idols, Francis Bacon categorized his time’s intellectual fallacies. He differentiated them as the Theater’s idols, the Tribe’s idols, marketplace idols, and the Cave’s idols. An idol is an image, held in the mind in this case, which receives veneration but is in itself without substance. Bacon did not consider idols as symbols, but rather as fixations. He anticipated modern psychology in that respect.