Moral philosophy is that branch of philosophy which shows the difference between what is good and bad, right and wrong in life. Moral philosophy is basically refers to goodness and rightness. The concept of morality tends to be different in different religion and culture. For example in Hindu culture, if a person is eating beef then he is consider to be immoral in society but it is normal or people do not judge you if you eating beef in Canada or somewhere else. So it can be say that different religion follow different rule of morality. Ethics is sub part of morality. Sometimes these words used as synonyms for each other’s. Sophocles (496-406 BC) is the first one who speaks about the morality in the ancient times. In his ‘Antigone’ he answer the various questions of morality relating in connections, obligations to family, political dependability, accommodation to divine directive, energetic selflessness and paternalism and a regard culture. Later the concept of moral philosophy also discuss in broad term by SOCRATES (469-399) BC
- Least Harm
- Respects for Autonomy
The word epistemology consists of two Greek words “episteme” which means knowledge and second one is “logos” which meaning, roughly, “study, or science, of Epistemology is primarily ‘concerned with standards of acceptability in terms of which to judge beliefs’ (Stewart, et. al., Fundamentals, 167). Epistemology is the investigation of information. Epistemologists fret about various errands, which we may sort into two classifications.
Initially, we should decide the idea of information; that is, I don\’t get its meaning to state that somebody knows, or neglects to know, something? This involves understanding what information is, and how to recognize cases in which somebody knows something and cases in which somebody doesn\’t know something. While there is some broad understanding about certain parts of this issue, we will see that this inquiry is considerably more difficult than one may be able to expect.
Second, we should decide the degree of human information; that is, what amount does we, or can we, know? How might we utilize our explanation, our faculties, the declaration of others, and different assets to obtain information? Are there cutoff points to what we can know? For example, are a few things mysterious? Is it conceivable that we don\’t know so much as we might suspect we do? Would it be a good idea for us to have a real stress over incredulity, the view that we don\’t or can\’t know anything by any stretch of the imagination?
Fundamental Issues in the Area of Epistemology
Epistemology Centers on Four Areas
- The philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as , truth , belief and justification.
- Various problems of skepticism
- The sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and
- The criteria for knowledge and justification.
Zalta, E. N. (Ed.). (n.d.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy [Summer version 2020] (Summer). Stanford university: Metaphysics Research lab, . Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/epistemology/#Aca
Social philosophy can be taken to mean the relationship of persons to institutions and to each other via these institutions that are not part of the state. Family is a clear example of a social institution.
- Social vs Nonsocial; social philosophy is the study of social entities and properties. Therefore to know that how are they distinguished from those that are not social
- Philosophy vs causation; Difficulty in analyzing social entities is in distinguishing philosophy from merely casual relations.
- What is meant by the building of the social world; to analysis the metaphysical sources or generations of social kinds or categories.
- Constitutions of the social world to know about the parts of a crowd or of corporations and necessary and sufficient conditions for an event to be an animal sacrifice.
- Nonsocial building blocks; to remove the mystery from the social world by characterizing a non-social determination base.
Philosophy of Science
The philosophy of science, a sub branch of epistemology is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations and implications of science including the natural science such as physics, chemistry and biology, the social science such as psychology, history and sociology and sometimes (especially beginning about the second decade of the twentieth century) the formal sciences such as logic mathematics, set, theory and proof theory.
According to Stewart et. al. “The philosophy of science is a philosophical reflection on the nature of science and scientific thinking, including the important question of the scientific use of empirical, inductive arguments” (Stewart et. al., 53)
Induction plays a crucial role in validating the scientific theories and it also help scientists to create new theories. Although, it does not provide strong evidence to prove the scientific facts but it is still used by scientist. One of the most famous versions of induction used to validate the scientific research is presented by Karl Poppers hypothetico-deductive model (The Logic of Scientific Discovery. This model was the most effective one in case of predication of new day scientific theories.
The Fundamental Issues are as Follows
- What is the context for a half century or so after World War 2 discipline after discipline split its goals along the axis of autonomy and dependence.
- Purity and danger so much ink spilled over whether the sciences were truly pre or were merely tools in the hands of forces outside their purview.
- Historical argumentation for years, the history and philosophy of science has dutifully created a parallel universe in which the disciplinary divisions of mid twentieth century are replicated.
- Fabricated fundamentals the problem of new kinds of objects that are of both scientific and ethical interest is taken up in different ways in these works.
- Political technologies in the twenty first century we see technical questions of privacy that could have arisen earlier.
- Locality and globalism – There seem to be aspects of scientific practice that simply do not reduce to the local.