In the first chapter of this book the author has given a full description about the educational technology the meaning of educational technology nature & scope of educational technology. They also mentioned about the various convenience definitions suggested by different scholars here. They also don’t forget to discuss about the different approaches of educational technology that is hardware, software approach, the difference between software and hardware technology and also mentioned the system approach.
In this system approach he also defines some convenience definitions and also characteristics of this approach. They also mentioned the role of the teacher in this system approach and also advantages and difficulties of this approach and finally drawn conclusion about this chapter is how much helpful for teaching-learning process in class room situation.
In this chapter he also mentioned type of educational technology like- teaching technology, instructional technology, behavioural technology & instructional design technology etc. he also mentioned assumptions of different type of technology. He also mentioned types of technology used in class room like- use of computer, creating class websites & blogs, use of digital microphones, use of mobile devices, use of smart interaction white boards, use of online media etc. After that he mentioned eight components of educational technology like
- The formation of objectives,
- preparation of curriculum & syllabi,
- formulation of evaluation tools,
- identification of models of teaching,
- identification of suitable communication media,
- designing and operation of actual teaching and evaluation,
- application of the teaching earning designs,
- re-organisation of the designs etc.
In this covered area the authors has not mentioned the questions for discussion, after that the authors has not also mention the sources of references, & he also not mentions different pictures or diagram so that the book is more effective & attractive. He also not indepthly analyse the chapter so, that this is not enough for graduation level students.
In this book the first chapter has dealing with educational technology but the author has not mentioned about the meaning of education & meaning of technology, he directly come to the topic educational technology, in this chapter there are some spelling error are found which may be de-motivate the students. The content of this chapter has not properly analyse. So, it is difficult for understanding of students, in studying.
In the second chapter of this book the author given description about the communication process – meaning, & four components of communication process like:
- Sender or source
- Message or signal
- The medium or channel of communication
- The receiver or destination
And also mentioned different types of communications like – speaking- listening, visualising-observing, writing- reading etc. He also mention teaching is a process of communication, & the organisation of communication in relation to the educational process can be understood in a better way from the following like – the source, the message, the channel, the destinations etc. He also mentioned the role of the teacher for effective communication. He also mentioned interaction analysis a (1970) frander – meaning & there are some major characteristics of interaction analysis, interaction analysis as a feedback device, etc. According to flander’s interaction analysis has some techniques;
- teacher tack
- student/pupil talk
- silence or confusion are said to exhaust all possibilities.
After that Flanders has developed ten category system.
The category system are like:
- Accepts feelings
- Praises or encourages
- Accepts of uses idea of pupils
- Ask questions
- Giving direction
- Criticising or justifying authority
- Pupil – talk response
- Pupil – talk initiation
- Silence or confusion
He said that the interaction analysis is primarily concerned with verbal behaviour. After that he mentioned the interaction analysis & interaction models implications in a short paragraph.
In this chapter the author has not properly analyse each and every terms and also he not suggests any types of definitions about different scholar’s views related different terms. The communication process is a very vast concept but author has not define properly this chapter. This chapter covers only 35-43 page. The author has not mentioned about the verbal communication & non-verbal communication, etc. the authors has not mentioned about the obstacles or barriers in the communication process.
In this chapter the authors has not mention questions for discussion purpose and also not mentioned the source of reference, etc. in this chapter the authors has given a diagram for better understanding of the concept but that diagram has confused more the students for understanding the concept. If he suggests colourful diagram which is very much helpful for students for better understanding the concepts.
But in this chapter the author mentioned interaction analysis properly, which is understandable very easily by students. The authors used very simple language to define all these concept. In this chapter there are various printing mistakes found, which may affect the teaching – learning process. In this chapter the Flanders interaction analysis category system was analysed properly. Which is benefitted for student’s development and con create ideas of the concept. Communication process very much essential in every day today life so, it must be clearly define so students will learned the various communications skills.
Innovations in Educational Technology
In this third chapter of this book the author given description about the innovations in educational technology which is very much essential in the present sinario. First of all he describe about the programmed learning/ institution, he mentioned that programmed learning is not only a technique for effective learning but also a successful mechanism of feedback device for the modification of teacher- behaviour.
According to prof gagne, programme learning consist of 3 important key words like – the accounting of the initial & terminal response of the learne, gradation of the teaching models, evaluation of the instructional strategies used for shaping of terminar behaviour. After that author mentioned basic concept of programmed learning in includes;- stimuli and responses, the transfer of stimulus control, prompting, gradual progression, reinforcement, generalisation and discrimination, extinction, concept formation, successive approximation, a frame or a didule, operant span, terminal behaviour etc. include in this basic concept of programmed – learning.
After that he mentioned about different principles of programmed learning it includes-objective specification, small step size, overt responding, success or minimal error , immediate feedback, logical, graded progress, self placing, empirical testing etc. which are very much helpful for the rules and systems by which a programme is constructed. After that the author mentioned different types of programmed learning. Software which includes linear, branching and mathematics and on the other form is hardware which represented by learner controlled instruction(LCI),computer assisted instruction(CAI), and teaching machines etc.
The linear programme proponent by B.f skinner(1958) branching programme proponent by the norman crowder(1960). And mathematics this style of programme learning exponent is Thomas f. gilbert in (1962). The learner controlled instruction programme advocated by Robert f. mager (1962)& computer assisted instruction this types of instructional module was developed by stolurow and devis in(1965), it is very much helpful for students to easily learned about the types of programmed-learning.
In this chapter the author also mentioned following steps in programming like-topic selection, content outline, presentation of the materials, entry skill, instructional objective,students participation, terminal behaviour test, revision etc.used in programme learning. It is also a self-instructional device. It helps the learner to teach himself at any place and pace according to his convenience. This learning process develop analytical thinking among students.
After that the author also mention projected and non-projected slides, film-strips, films,transparencies for overhead projecter and non-projected aids includes map, charts,globes, models, display boards, bulletin boards etc and here author said that projected aids are costly and non-projected aids are less costly.These aids are instructional media. It serve as the channel of instruction. After that the author mentioned the concept of micro-teaching, meaning, and it has some important features like-micro-teaching, teaching skill and teaching strategies, it has include some skill like pre-instructional skill,instructional skilland post instructional skill, the feedback element safe practice ground, the teaching, model etc are included in micro-teaching.
Author also mentioned micro-teaching underlying principles, microteaching its development, micro-teaching-teaching skills it has also include some steps in the process of micro teaching-teaching session,feedback session, replan session, reteach session, feedback session these five steps are involved in micro teaching cycle. The micro-teaching has also involves three phases that is –knowledge acquision phase, skill acquision phase, transfer phase etc. After that the author describes about the simulated teaching-meaning and typesd of activity involved in this process like-role-playing, socio-drama,gaming etc.it is also includes stimulation underlying principles and also advantages.
After this personalised system of instruction was mentioned including this system one of the most important model is carrolls model of learning, this model have five components like-aptitude, ability to understand instructions, quality of instruction, opportunity to learn, perservence etc. He also mentioned historical background of personalised system of instruction and also keller plan etc. He also mention essential components of personalised system of instruction like mastery, unit size immediate feedbeck, amount of review etc and also he mentioned the advantages and uses of this system instruction and also gave some important suggestion for the development in this area and also gave some criticism and after that finally he drawn conclusion about all the concerned concepts.
In this chapter has not mentioned questions for discussion purpose and also not mentioned the source of reference about this chapter. The micro-teaching topic is well mentioned in this chapter and also well define the micro-teaching in teaching skills, meaning, features etc. But the author not well defined the programmed-learning. Because it can not gave more knowledge about programme-learning, it is limited . In this chapter the author well organised the personalised system of instruction ina understand easily by students. But he not mentioned point wise he mentioned many things in aparagraph, so, it can not attact the students attentions. In programme-learning there are many things which is not included in this chapter or not mentioned. So, the students doubts may be arouse.
In the chapter four of this book the author given full description about the teaching models. Here he gave meaning of models, various conveniences, definitions of teaching models, he also gave five fundamental elements of teaching models like- focus, syntax, social system, support system and classroom application etc. The author has also mentioned the role of teahing models and also types of teaching models, these includes- social interection model, personal development models., behaviour modification models, information processing pmodels etc. After that the author has also mentioned the concept of attainment model, these concept has there element according the view of bruner like-examples, attitudes, attributes values etc.
The attainment model has develop four essential phases these are-syntax, social system, support system last one is classroom application etc. After that the author mentioned about the advanced organiser model-introduction,presentation of subject matter it deals with three concerns like-how knowledge is organised, how the mind works to process new information,how teachers can apply these ideas about curriculum and learning when they present new materials to students etc. After that Ausubels advance organiser model is mentioned. In this model the advance organisers are two types-1-expository another one is 2-comparative. In this model also include three types of subsumption like-derivative, correlative and combinational subsumption etc and they conclusion is drawn by author.
After that the author also mentioned the synectics teaching model and this model with references to focuss, syntax, social system, support system and application etc are mentioned here. And also the author mentioned inductive teaching model and this model has five fundamental elements like- focus, syntax, social system,support system and classroom applications.The first three phase of this model is helpful or concern with the concept formation by involving enumeration, grouping and labelling categories etc. After that memory level teaching model also includes in this chapter and the total range of teaching operations may be ivided into three levels like-memory level, understanding level and reflective thinking.
The model of memory level teaching consists of five main aspects like- focus, syntax, social system, support system and evaluation system etc. In this model in the aspect of syntax Herbert has developed five steps for the structure of the model like-preparation, presentation, comparision or abstraction, generalisation and application etc are mentioned in this chapter.
In this chapter the author has not mentioned questions for sdiscussion and also not mentioned sources of references. The autgor well define the teaching models but he was not well define the models of different type he define in a paragraph, So, the students can not understand the concept easily. In this chapter no picture or diagram should be so, it is also an limitation in the process of teaching and learning. But in this chapter headings are highlighted. The authors not well described all the models which is mentioned in this chapters. Because they directly mentioned the concept but not about the concept, model or else. In this chapter some bulletmark is used for attract the concept but that is used in very less.