I am studying lying under oath. I am studying this because, when you must go to the court you must take an oath. This oath “I swear by Almighty God that I will tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. Affirmation: I solemnly, sincerely and truly declare and affirm that I will tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth.’ the reason why this issue is said is to make sure that you are not lying.
I think that it is very important to study to see if this works well or not. Understanding this will help to understand whether we must change this. The best way to understand whether the oath helps is looking at how it works, and how we do it. When reading how we lie. I learned that for example, 40% of adults have reported telling a lie at least once a day (in site) I also learned that we take longer to lie. (in site) the first peer-reviewed article had three experiments done. The first one progressed as such.
The experiment progressed as a series of trials. Each of which, had a presentation with one of three words in the center of the computer screen it would say lie, truth, or choice. Participants were asked to tell whether they understood by pressing a key. when it was the truth, they had to push the L key. when it was a lie, they had to either push the T or L key. when the word choice came, they had to pick the word lie or truth. Participants were asked to lie and tell the truth 10 times, to enable data from both responses where to be collected.
The word stayed on the screen until the participant pressed the right key and was then replaced with a blue or a red square. Participants then had to say the true color of the square or lie about it. Saying it was the other color than it was. Voice key responses were recorded by a chip microphone. After the response was made, the next trial would be beginning after 500 MS. Instructions were put on the screen and stressed the importance of responding as quickly and as accurately as the participants could. Participants practiced a block of 12 trials that were identical to the main trail.
The question ‘What color is the square?’ would be visually asked prior to both the practice block and the block of the real trials. All stimuli were on a black background, with the squares being the same size and the text being shown in Arial font. The font was Arial and size 40. The second experiment they did was done differently. They modified what they had to do. This involved the presentation of one of two words in the center of a computer screen. The words were ready or choice. When the word ready was on the screen, participants were told to press the space bar.
When the word choice was on the screen, participants could press T or the L key, this was depending on whether they had chosen to speak the truth or lied.( T for true and l for lie) On a ready trial, the keypress was followed by the letter L or T shown in the center of the screen for a one-second period. On a choice trial, the keypress was followed by a reminder of what key was pressed by showing either an L or a T in the center of the screen for a one-second period.
A colored square would then appear on the screen and the participant would report the color whether it was true or not. The time is taken to do this was recorded. The visual prompt was the only aspect of the procedure that differed from the first experiment. The last experiment from this study as in the first experiment, the task involved one of two words in the center of the computer screen lie or truth and participants would say that they understood by pressing the T key when shown with the word truth and the L key when shown with the word lie.
A colored square (blue, red, or green) was then shown. Participants were required to either lie or tell the truth about the color seen. The Responses were recorded. This study was needed to help understand how lying works. We need a background before we can understand how this works with being under oath. The next article I found was on how people tell the truth under oath. This how they did this experiment.
Two participants, a sender, and a receiver are randomly matched. The computer makes a random pick by “rolling” a 6-sided die. This was the Design of the baseline experiment. only the sender knows about the result. The sender is asked to send a message to the receiver, it must be one of the six messages. The sender faces no restraint on whether they send the true outcome to the receiver. if the sender chooses to not tell the truth, and the receiver picks a number that the sender’s messaged. the lie is called altruistic since receiver gains from the lie, but the sender loses.
Thinking that same logic characterizes a selfish lie, there is also Pareto lie since both the sender and the receiver benefit from the sender sending a message that is not the real outcome of the die. The fourth payoff configuration acts as the control configuration since both players lose from the sender’s lie. We introduce two main changes in the original design.
First, instead of paying only one pair of subjects out of 10 pairs, we pay every subject based on actual decisions. They did this in two different environments one where one was neutral and the other was in an environment where they were reminded about it is bad to lie. This study showed how the effects of being under oath help you tell the truth. The last study that I read was an experiment where All the participants got an email from the data collection company. This email contained a link to the experiment.
The participants were told to read a story about a cat burglar. In the story, a person named Zhang Hua was thought of stealing. Participants were told in the testimonies that six eyewitnesses consistently reported that Zhang Hua looked like the criminal. In the other condition, participants were told that three eyewitnesses reported that Zhang Hua looked like the criminal, and the other three eyewitnesses said that he did not look like the criminal.
In order to prove Zhang Hua’s innocence, he said he had an alibi for when the time of the theft told place. At the end of his statement, the participants in the oath condition were told that Zhang Hua had sworn an oath that he did not do this he said: “I swear by my life that I have told the truth.” In the other condition, the participants were not told about the oath.