When connecting to “nation” and “nationality” Smith defines nationalism based on 3 common ideas that have emerged from the study of this ideology, national unity, countrywide autonomy and national identity. In this context, nationalism is defined as ‘an ideological movement for reaching and retaining autonomy of team spirit and identification for a population which some of its participants deem to represent an actual or potential “nation”.’ However, for Anderson, countries are simply “imagined communities” as individuals of those communities will rarely recognize each other, and as a consequence they will draw upon the idea of nationality from their very own imagined population to which they belong to.
This thought rose up out of before ideas explained by Gellner (1969) who contended that nationalism is just the way toward envisioning countries. A comparative definition that spotlights on the possibility that nationalism is inside felt by the individual was created by Khon contending that: ‘nationalism is a state of mind, in which the supreme loyalty y of the individual is felt to be because of the nation state’
Economic nationalism involves advancing guidelines that spur economic increase and privilege the nation-state over the global. Friedrich. List mercantilist ideas for Germany in that it encourages states to place their national pursuits first in addition to strengthening their country wide competitiveness. However, it differs from classical mercantilism in that it takes place at the same time as the ones international locations nevertheless try to be integrated into the global economic system (Adewale, 2012), not like Friedrich List who encouraged protectionism till the economic system changed into strong enough to compete.
Globalization and Economic Nationalism Implication
Siekmeier, argues that at first glance globalisation and economic nationalism seem opposing. “Globalizers want to tear down national borders, real or imagined. Nationalists, for their part, want to privilege their own nation at all costs” D’Costa expands this paradox similarly through arguing that for a nation to be energetic in guidance its economic system to desired monetary desires, it wishes a few regulatory mechanisms. However, globalisation, championed with the aid of global establishments together with the World Trade Organisation, World Bank and International Monetary Fund, destroys these very boundaries or regulatory mechanisms
Case Study of Economic Nationalism in Ghana
Ghana is a West African nation situated along the Bay of Guinea. It was one of the principal gathering of nations in Africa to experience a neoliberal rebuilding during the 1980s. Note that Ghana since autonomy in 1957 encountered a blend of civilian governments combined with fleeting military guidelines until 1992 when pressure exuding from both worldwide and domestic powers, prompted the production of a constitution and multiparty elections from that point. Ghana from that point forward hosts democrartic multi-party elections. Similarly as its tempestuous political history, it inclined towards either communism or liberalism economicly relying upon the legislature in power. Kwame Nkrumah’s administration (1960-1966), for example, inclined towards communism and the East, while K. A. Busia’s administration (1969-1972) inclined towards liberalism and the West (WB) and Universal Money related Reserve (IMF), because of the breakdown of its economy in 1983. The World Bank ascribed the disappointment of Ghana’s economy to burdened impedance of the state just as domestic mismanagement, horticulture inclined economy what’s more, shut exchange and money related policies (Amsden, A. H. & Hikino, T.,, 2000, pp. 104-114). Thus, neoliberal strategies (Washington Accord) were recommended as an approach to get rid of the ills of the economy to take into consideration free enterprise to prosper. Ghana received these approaches named as the Basic Modification Projects (SAPs). These SAPs were actualized for some time and well into 1993 furthermore, past. This rebuilding had some obvious accomplishments. Exchange turned out to be increasingly open as import quantities and duties were brought down and endowments expelled. State-possessed undertakings were either privatized or shut, and impetuses were made to consider outside direct venture. As per an evaluation by the World Bank, Ghana was the most open when it came to exchange. Notwithstanding, this exchange transparency that the World Bank called a ‘triumph’ did not hold any longer, exchange was unhindered, however it didn’t upgrade development and industrialisation.
It merits realizing that since 1992 till present day and in accordance with majority rules system, Ghana keeps on rehearsing neoliberal arrangements. This philosophy advocates the moving back of the state, alongside its approaches of privatization, deregulation, progression of fund and exchange and FDI . Basically, the diagram of Ghana’s economic and political setting sets up the way that Ghana seeks after a neoliberal monetary direction, and it is globalized as its economy is available to the remainder of the world. Nonetheless, this globalization has prompted development or industrialization
The rise of economic Nationalism in Ghana
In resentment of the neoliberal arrangement practice, Ghanaian elites have been advancing efforts to support national items over remote ones. A case of such crusades incorporates the ‘National Friday Wear program’ propelled by ex-president John Agyekum Kufour as a feature of endeavors to spike the required enthusiasm for Ghanaians to disparage privately created merchandise, most particularly African prints. Also, the language utilized at that point was; ‘wear indigenous prints’ as that will save ‘our personality’ (W. A Asiedu; Asiedu, W. A;, 2013). As it were, national character was assembled for this battle At that point, in 2017, Ghana received a nationalist trade approach.
This arrangement known as the Madein-Ghana approach (MIG), is assembled by the legislature of Ghana through the service of Exchange and Industry, business and exchange affiliations and the scholarly community to prod support of neighborhood products and ventures. The issue of low support of Ghanaian made merchandise has threatened to drive to annihilation the manufacturing part in Ghana. The manufacturing area, made up of for the most part of small to medium scale enterprises (SMEs), discovers it practically difficult to increment generation and numerous organizations needed to shut down. The MIG strategy is in this manner an interest driven approach to impart in Ghanaians an inclination for indigenous merchandise and enterprises to the detriment of outside ones, just as an inclination for Ghanaian products in different markets of the world.
An item is depicted as a ‘Made-in-Ghana’ great on the off chance that it ‘is generously changed in Ghana what’s more, with at any rate 30 percent of the expense of creation brought about in Ghana’ The strategy contains ‘a lot of approach instruments and measures’ coordinated towards giving ‘made-in Ghana’ items a focused edge over their remote partners Just explicit items are focused for this approach and they spread the following regions; Horticulture and Agro Preparing, Pharmaceuticals and Beautifying agents, Wood and Wood Items, Materials and Pieces of clothing, Development Materials and United Items, Cowhide items. The import of a portion of these items under these territories, for example, flour, poultry, bread rolls presently pull in ‘higher statutory obligations and charges’. (Bletsas, 2012) Different measures incorporate a refinement of people in general to support their own local items over imported ones. A logo has likewise been intended to mark these items to imply quality and that they are gladly Ghanaia. Every one of these endeavors and measures are outfitted towards making these Ghanaian made items aggressive.
In light of the survey of monetary nationalism over, the MIG Approach signifies a economic nationalism exertion as it endeavors to support the national over the worldwide. The survey above too presents a casing that states will in general seek after monetary nationalism approaches due to the unfriendly impacts of neoliberal globalization or economic nationalism is a reaction to the powers of globalization. Without a doubt, these edges delineate the elements among globalization and monetary nationalism in Latin America, South Korea and China among others. Ghana has an open economy and can be considered globalized as its outskirts are available to all way of items (Bond, 2005). Henceforth, one will be slanted to ponder whether globalization contributed to the appropriation of the MIG approach; a basically nationalism exchange strategy. Is the approach a response to globalization or it is more unpreictable than that? As such, how did globalization impact the appropriation of the MIG arrangement? This inquiry is at the center of this postulation.
The rise in economic nationalism undermines the way of life of economic liberalism (globalism) and discourages economic and political cooperation among countries. When a rustic makes a decision that they can enhance the great of lifestyles, growth jobs, and commonly improve their economies by means of breaking away from bilateral or multilateral agreements, thereby undermining the institutions that have provided for agreements between countries that agreed to the rule of law, belongings rights, methods of change, tax collection, public goods provided to poorer international locations, exams and balances on legitimate corruption, there has been a advantage.
In brief, the upward push of nationalism threatens the rule-primarily based trading system championed by way of the U.S. Due to the fact that World War II. Without these rules, without the World Trade Organization serving as a mediator and guidelines police, the exchange would keep but the loss of norms and procedures might create extra trade conflicts and could cause extra disputes. The fewer the rules, the more likely that army energy would grow to be greater important in exchange disputes, in preference to operating through institutions designed to lessen struggle. Transnational funding would be decreased.
Although now not all international locations benefit similarly and economic liberalism has its winners and losers, it does offer the framework inside which economic development is possible presenting a manner for economic savings to accumulate and investment to develop, thereby making the world, arguably, a better location, in which funding enables economies develop.
Countries benefit with cooperation between international locations to mutual benefit, turning into too nationalistic on the expense of its partners is counterproductive. It is an technique that creates battle. Being greater nationalistic tends to be a zero sum game in an increasingly interdependent global economy, wherein international locations rely upon different nations for their economic and political and country wide security health. When organizations cooperate, they could turn out to be extra competitive. When they’re more competitive, they rent more workers, pay better salaries, and otherwise make a contribution to monetary increase. Economic nationalism is not a good policy.