Table of Contents
Ethics is an essential component of any social confinement because it aids in providing viable information on how the social contract can be maintained. Understanding the different worldviews helps in ensuring that the premise of the ethical codes is established. This paper evaluates different prospects, the philosophical viewpoints, and the ethics which are connected to a given group or institution. The various viewpoints include the Christian view, the Islam view, the Marxist perspective and the postmodern view. The standpoints are critical because they aid in amplifying and explaining the different position and the conditions which are upheld in the social circle. Further, the paper affirms the roles which are associated with ethics and how well they can be used to improve governance and leadership capability. The assessment of the Biblical covenant model is also evaluated and the specific components that it encompasses. The entire paper provides the foundational attributes which aid in imprinting ethics in the community.
Keywords: The Christian worldview, Marxist worldview, Biblical covenant model.
In the process of understanding the working domains of society, it is vital to consider some of the components which guide the actions and the decisions which people make in life. Different doctrines are considered in affirming the conditions of the community and how people relate with other people.
In this case, different concepts of ethics have evolved, and it is vital to understand the different viewpoints which can be used to explain the aspects of ethics. The understanding of ethics builds on moral conduct, the goodness, and the values which one should consider while relating with other people. In such a situation, there are different viewpoint which exists on how the specific elements can be inculcated in the community. Various schools of thought provide information regarding the foundational premise which they uphold and how well they view its placement in the social platform. Most of the worldviews have been derived from ancient philosophers such as Socrates, who believed that an individual needs to have the ability to know what is good and what is evil, and through this, one can be able to determine the application of social justice, self-control as well as courage Auxier (2015).
While dwelling on the ethical domain, it is advisable to consider the moral standpoint before setting in place any course of action. As a result, it is vital to have knowledge of the competing worldview or the philosophical perspectives that touch on ethics. Such a move is essential because it provides one with the foundational positional, which guides the actions and decisions of an individual or a given group. Further, when one has an understanding of the competing worldview, focusing on the application of ethics in public administration is of the essence.
There are different roles which ethics plays in guiding the actions and the positions which are undertaken by persons holding any public office. Further, the paper aims at examining the Biblical/covenantal model of statesmanship and how it influences the entire administrative premise of the community. Additionally, the leadership and the organizational behavior will be evaluated and the metrics which govern its implementation.
Evaluate Competing Worldview/Philosophical Perspectives on Ethics
According to Fischer (2010) worldview “is an intellectual, emotional, and spiritual framework by which one view reality, make sense of life and apply meaning to every area of your life”. The creator is the beginning and eternal and express love to everyone no manner what the situation or circumstances is. In the process of guiding the community or any business entity, Auxerre (2015) notes that it is vital to have a comparison of the different worldviews which can play a central role in determining the administrative narrative that is upheld in any social environment. The notion by the author seeks to emphasize the importance of having an open mind and evaluate the different points of view and how best they can be applied in particular circumstances.
Taylor (2018) reinforces the perspective of the Socratic ethics and Heinaman (2017) focuses on the comparison which exists between the Socratic ethics as well as ethical framework applauded by Aristotle. From this, it is clear that comparisons are pertinent whole, ensuring that the correct perspective is undertaken in the process of selecting a given moral or ethical position. The competing philosophical perspectives on ethics include, the Christian worldview, new spirituality, the Marxism position, Islamism, Secularism, and Post Modernism.
Christian Worldview on Ethics
One of the major avenues channels, which is used as a foundation for ethics, is the Christian position on morality and social relations. Corrigan et al. (2016), in his analysis of Judaism, aver that the Christian worldview is a theistic assertion that believes in the existence of Jesus from where the followers retrieve their nourishment and understanding on various ethical issues in society. In essence, the worldview focuses on the teachings which are found in the Bible, and God is seeing as the overall spiritual Deity who is the creator of both material and spiritual components. Further, God is the one who is responsible for creating man in His own image. A significant point of emphasis that is enshrined in the view is that humanity tends to be broken when the followers engage in sin, but the redemption by Jesus Christ can be perceived as the only way through which the individual can gain healing and rejuvenation.
Solovyov (2016) notes that there are facets that are enshrined in the Christian worldview. The case of Dualism is pertinent in the sense that they believe that reality is composed of the spiritual and the material realms. On the aspect of morality, Agape is the foundational absolute that habors the love of God and the love of the neighbor Auxier (2015). From this, the Christians are in a position to make decisions and take positions that bring happiness and comfort to all the people. In essence, the ethical underpinning of the worldview is that the trinitarian monotheistic position believes in the teachings and directions of God through His son Jesus Christ and the guidance of the Holy Spirit.
Therefore, the activities and the actions of the people are guided by the doctrines of the bible.
Another vital competing viewpoint regarding the premise of ethics is the Islamic view. Choudhury & Furqani (2015) tend to focus on the specific elements which are in line with the Islamic teachings and how they relate to the individual and society. The worldview upholds the notion of monotheism, which is the belief in a single deity, and this plays an immense part in affirming the ethical background enshrined by the group. The worldview also focuses on dualism and the divine command theory. The divine command theory is pertinent because it guides the people on the specific course of actions that need to be undertaken in the process of maintaining sanity in social confines. The ethical argument is that the Quran contains all the teachings and the notions which people need to adhere to. Therefore, the code of ethics and the specific decisions which need to be taken should be in adherence to the set code of operations, which are in line with the Islamic teachings.
Furqani (2015) reiterates these notions by pointing out that God’s commands are divine, and they aid cementing the decision-making module, especially in the business confines.
The atheistic position has an interesting position regarding the notion of ethics and the basis of the establishment. The view is embedded in the fact that God does not exist and that the world is made up of matter, and the spiritual realm does not exist.
With this, the followers of this doctrine harbor the philosophy of materialism and naturalism. The statement implies that the socialization and the relationships which happen to exist are guided by the relationship that one enjoys with the other rather than the one that is controlled by an outside force. Heinaman, R. (Ed.). (2017) aver that the doctrines of ethics are controlled and moved by the thoughts and notions of the individual.
In this scenario, the ethical position enshrined in the secular domain is that relativism and utilitarianism are the significant controllers of the acts which are undertaken. The statement implies that an individual is granted the mantle of deciding the steps and the decisions to undertake when faced with a given situation. Moral relativism avers that the ethical domain is determined by an individual or the culture which they uphold Heinaman, R. (Ed.). (2017).
In essence, there are no truths that can be considered as truths, and not all truths can transverse through all cultures. Therefore, the person is mandated with the capability of coming up with a judgment on the specific issues which affect their existence. Utilitarianism ethics is the notion whereby people need to undertake activities or decisions which maximize happiness and reduces the level of suffering Auxier (2015). In the application of the doctrine, an individual is required to examine a situation and come up with an evaluative stance which will maximize the levels of happiness.
Contrary to Kantian ethics, this type of ethical framework adheres to the premise that an individual needs to consider the consequence which comes along after undertaking a given course of action. Therefore, most of the laws which are set in place with this worldview are those that tend to impose more benefits to the population compared to the harm that is associated with it.
The Marxist position provides fundamental insights into some of the pertinent factors which affect the social dynamics. The atheistic view is significant because it shares some of the theoretical underpinnings which are incorporated in the process of coming with laws and legislations associated with the view. According to Shafritz & Hyde (2016), Weber affirms that bureaucracy structure is one that can be perceived as effective, but in the long run, the concept cannot be regarded as viable, but instead, there is the need to have in place an effective, ethical making paradigm.
In the Marxist view, the proletariat framework is one that is used in the process of setting in place the operational system that is adopted in the community. Auxier (2015) The philosophy that is advocated for by the initiative is one dialectical materialism which affirms that the progress of the community is usually dictated by the struggles and the mechanisms which are present. This approach is specific to the importance of reinforcing communism in the community because capitalism can be perceived as an evil that separates the community. For instance, the working class (the proletariat) and the bourgeoisie (the groups with the means of production) can clash, and when such a situation occurs, then the anticipated result is that capitalism will give way to socialism thus bringing an end to capitalism. It goes without mentioning that the ethical prospect of the type of morality being championed for is proletariat morality. In the ethical narrative, the
Marxist perceptions are that the welfare of the working class needs to be improved at all times, and communism should always flourish, and anything that hinders the occurrence of the two entities can be treated as evil and very immoral. Therefore, the worldview habors the notion that communism is an important attribute that should be adopted in any social dimension because it ensures that development does not take place among the few but also the compact majority becomes involved in the process.
Role That Ethics Plays in the Public Administration Context
In an administrative or a managerial position, ethics is important because it aids in achieving different components that are critical in the social domain. In public context, various ethical guidelines need to be followed so that success can be achieved in the long run. Before the application of any moral paradigm, it is crucial to understand the dimensions, the beliefs, and the structure of society before imposing any given ethical or administrative structure. The premise of the notion is that the ethical standards or codes tend to be specific to a given population, and this is a component that needs to be granted consideration.
In the book, Classics of Public Administration, Shafritz & Hyde (2016) provides an intuitive assessment of the changes which have taken place in public administration over the years. The evaluations from the 1920s to the 1990s provides an evolution of the transformations and revolutions which have taken place in public administration. The different notions and the ideologies that have been developed by elites have been evaluated comprehensively, and this plays a significant part in the process of separating the different worldviews of ethics Shafritz & Hyde (2016). Different roles are associated with ethics in public administration, and this can be seen in different dimensions.
Ghere (2016) notes that ethics is an essential element which is responsible for enforcing accountability on the part of the community leaders. Accountability can be perceived in the sense that it aids in improving the way the persons in the office undertake their role. Similar to the utilitarian principles which advocate for happiness for the general public or the majority of the people, ethics ensures that the set principles are critical in the process of safeguarding the well being of the people. For instance, the preservation of public property, the distribution of resources as well as openness and transparency when taking such a situation.
According to Cooper (2019), accountability is an essential component that needs to be enhanced in any given administrative position. Another role which ethics play is ensuring that there is justice in the delegation of duties as well as services. Shafritz & Hyde (2016) provides a profound analysis of the changes which have taken place in the administrative agencies, and one of the prominent elements to note is that assessment of the contributions by Jeremy Betham (1748-1832) who highlighted the basics of morals and legislation. Therefore, ethics plays a significant part in ensuring that all parties involved can take their task to outside forces. The ideal of ethics is also notable from the
Confucius notions on why the government needs to be established, its overall role, and how it works to improve the entire welfare of the individuals in the future. Plant (2018) reiterates the essential prospects that are associated with public administration and how the distinct entities in the code of ethics and how well they aid in spearheading the activities of the institution. Another role which ethics play in public administration is ensuring that there is social justice and fair treatment of all the persons under the jurisdiction. Potipiroon & Faerman (2016) provides a viable analysis of the contribution, which can be linked to the presence of ethical leaders in a given administrative office. The authors affirm that there is a high level of interpersonal justice that is nurtured in the organizational system.
In part 3 of the book by Shafritz & Hyde (2016) the contribution by Hebert Kaufmann provides emphasis on how ethics can be seen as a channel that best inculcates justice and ensures that the pubic administrators are in a position to have adequate and effective operational paradigms that guarantee success in the long run. Therefore, this can be perceived as one of the unique ways through which ethics can be used to ensure justice is served in the public domain. Another dominant attribute that is associated with ethics is swift and effective communication. The success of any public office is estimated by its ability to have adequate structures that eloquently communicate the ways of the public, and their interest is safeguarded.
Therefore, there needs to be sufficient and articulate structures that are set in place to ensure that the welfare of the community remains positive. The communication of all activities, staying free from corruption and ensuring that all the questions by the public are granted substantial answers are needed. Therefore, there is the need to have swift and evaluative structures that can best handle the prospect of the community and also ensure there are no lags or mishaps in the process of addressing the social issues.