San Giovani cathedral, Lateran, Italy: Historical background: It`s one of Rome’s four main churches and the seat of its bishop, where the Pope of Rome is often imitated as the Bishop of Rome. Built in the 4th century, the cathedral was renovated and rebuilt many times during its long history, and during the Middle Ages it was the pope’s residence, where five church mosques were held between the 12th and 16th centuries called “The Latranian Gatherings”. During its history, the church was looted by the Vandal son in 455 and rebuilt by Pope Leo the Great (440-460) and restored by Adrian I (722–795), but it was severely damaged by Pope Sergius III in 905, and Pope Nicholas IV (1288-1292) oversaw its rebuilding with numerous decorations and murals.
It was set on fire twice in 1308 and 1361 and was restored by Pope Urban V and then pope Gregory XI in the 14th century by the architect Giovanni Di Stéfano. Theoretical background: The old church was made up of a courtyard and two galleries and was named after the “Christ the Redeemer”. The original ceiling of the church was wooden. Now, On the roof ,there are fourteen statues of the twelve disciples, interspersed with Jesus blessed and carrying the cross. The main façade is made by Alessandro Galilei, consisting of an upper floor with huge arches and columns .roman Corinthian columns were used to carry the load from arches to the ground. motifs and mosaic were used in walls. building materials were used as finishing materials. Fig.27 elevation of san Giovanni cathedral. Fig.28 plan of san Giovanni cathedral. Fig.29 section of san Giovanni cathedral. 2-12-2-Byzantine architecture: Saint basil cathedral, Moscow, Russia: Historical background: The cathedral began 487 years ago, when Ivan IV, known as “Ivan the treble”, crowned prince of Moscow and a Cesar of all Russia in 1533, commissioned the architect Postnik Yakkov to create a cathedral on the south-eastern side of the Red Square to commemorate the fall of the Khanate of Kazan, in which the Russian army triumphed over the Mongol Tatars.
After six years of continuous work, nine temples were built on a single basis, each filled with icons and walls painted in pink basalt colors, decorated with works of art engraved on the walls of the inner domes, and named after the “Saint Basil”, loved by the Cesar and the Russian people in general. Theoretical background: The cathedral’s courtyard was surrounded by an open gallery, resembling a balcony, and each of its churches was crowned with a special dome with a unique style. It’s 65 meters high. There are no cellars in the cathedral. Instead, it was constructed on a common base: a covered cellar without supports. The ventilation designs were based on narrow holes, especially in the walls.
Onion domes on drum were used as roofing for the churches. Compared to its huge exterior, the interior of the cathedral looks very small, perhaps because the building was initially built as a monument. Fig.30 plan and elevation of saint basil cathedral. Fig.31 section of saint basil cathedral. 2-12-3-Romanesque architecture: Speyer cathedral, Germany: Historical background: The largest preserved Romanesque cathedral in the world. It contains nine bells, the heaviest of which weighs up to 5,350 kg. In 1925, Pope Pius XI promoted the cathedral to the Basilica, which was included in 1981 on UNICCO’s World Cultural Heritage List. It is the seat of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Speyer and is the right to vote for the Diocese of Bamberg. It began in 1030 under Conrad II, with the eastern end and the high cellar in 1090-1103, and the vaulted basilica. Theoretical background: Inside ceiling in the cathedral was by groin vaults and external roofs were wood strips fixed in an inclined shape and painted with pastel colors. groin vaults made it possible to construct clerestory windows above the nave arcade.
A dome with drum is the roofing system to cover the choir. plan of the cathedral consists from repeatative units. Fig.32 elevation of speyer cathedral Fig.34 section and plan of Speyer cathedral Fig.33 dome and groin vaults inside Speyer cathedral`s ceiling system 2-12-4- Gothic architecture: York cathedral, England: Historical background: One of the largest of its kind in Northern Europe. The Minister is the seat of the Archbishop of York, the second highest office in the Church of England, and is the mother church of the Diocese of York. run by the dean and separated, under the Dean of York. The title “minster” is attributed to the churches established in the Anglo-Saxon period as missionary teaching churches, and is now a title of honor. The services provided in the Minister are sometimes regarded as in the Upper Church or the Anglo-Catholic Church in the Anglican Series. The cathedral dates back to 627, when the first wooden church was built on this site, but the church already became in 632, at which time York Cathedral was subjected to numerous reconstruction and restoration after fires and destruction.
The current appearance of the cathedral obtained in 1472, where it took several centuries to build cologne cathedral. Theoretical background: Ceiling system in York cathedral relayed on flying buttress which distributed the load to walls. Interior ceiling were rib vaults and fan vaults. The cathedral has a spacious, ornate Gothic-style courtyard and a Gothic vertical cabin. The courtyard contains the Western Window” built in 1338″ and along the Lady Church at the east end, is the Great Eastern Window (completed in 1408), the largest medieval stained glass area in the world. In the north, there is a window of the “Five Sisters”, where each plot is 53 feet high. The southern part of the window has a pink window, while the west window has a heart-shaped design known as the “Heart of Yorkshire”. Fig.35 plan of York cathedral Fig.37 elevation and section of york cathedral Fig.36 vaults of interior ceiling system 2-12-5- Umayyad architecture: The great mosque of Damascus: Historical background: Located in the heart of the Old City, it was a market in the Old Testament, and was transformed into a temple established in the first century AD. Then it turned into a church with time. When The Muslims entered Damascus, Khaled ibn al-Walid entered by force, and Obeida ibn al-Jarrah entered a reconciliation. Half became a mosque and half a church.
In 86 Ah (corresponding to 705 AD), the Umayyad caliph Alwaleed bin Abdul Malik converted the church into a mosque, rebuilt it, and broke it with mosaics. today, it has three minarets, four doors, a large dome and three domes in its plate, which took about ten years to build. It is the first mosque to enter a Pope in Rome. That was in 2001 when he was visited by Pope John Paul II. it`s considered to be The first mihrab in Islam. Theoretical background: A new type of domes appeared in this mosque called dome of the eagle. The Eagle Dome rises from the land of the Umayyad Mosque courtyard 45 meters and has a diameter of 16 meters. The eagle dome was wooden, described by Ibn Jubeir accurately. This octagonal dome was rebuilt after fire occurred in 1893, supported on muqarnas , dominates the central nave of the mosque and resting on four great pillars above the transept To be able to carry the heavy-weight stone dome. The roof of the corridors is a wooden roof consisting of circular wooden pillars (tree trunks) with flat panels on top of them, and the outer surface is filled with lead plates.
The dish has 3 doors: the western door (the door of the post), the eastern door (Door groin) the north door (Bab al-Kalasa). -Three small domes are seen in the courtyard: The dome of the safe or the dome of money: west of the courtyard, an octagonal room lead-mounted hemi-spherical domes. The room is based on eight Corinthian crowns. The dome of the watches or the dome of Zine El Abidin: east of the courtyard, also lead-mounted hemi-spherical dome based on an octagonal wooden frame carried on eight columns. Ottoman dome: In the center of the courtyard, on a square base, inside it is a basin and light. It was then removed and the sink remained exposed. In the restorations “1992” a square dome was erected over the ablution basin in imitation of the former dome. Fig.38 plan of the great mosque of Damascus Fig.39 perspective of the mosque 2-12-6- Abbasid architecture: Abu daluf mosque: Historical background: Abu Daluf Mosque is a historic mosque located north of Samarra, Iraq. The mosque was built by the Abbasid caliph al-Mutawakel in 859 AD. with an architectural design similar to the Mallowia Mosque, which is considered one of the largest mosques in the world in terms of area and one of the most important remains of the ancient city of Samarra. The mosque was listed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2007, as part of the archaeological city of Samarra.
Theoretical background: Wooden ceilings based on arches were used to cover al-riwaq. the roofed part of the The mosque is based on octagonal pillars connected to marble columns in the corners .it was built on a rectangular area surrounded by an open courtyard surrounded by al-arwiqa, the largest were al-qibla riwaq. which consists of three tiles and parallels the pillars that bear the ceiling of the qibla wall and has replaced the stone columns that Used in the Abbasid era with pillars bearing the roof constructed with bricks and surrounded the mosque from the outside a brick wall height of 10 meters and supported by semicircular towers prominent from the walls about 2 meters number 40 towers .the qibla gallery contains 24 rows of props, 25 tiles, and also there is both the east and the west gallery four rows of props, while the north side has only three rows. The mosque has a mihrab surrounded by a couple of marble columns ending with Roman crowns and this mosque is one of the largest Islamic mosques with an area of 46,800 square meters with a length of 260 meters and a width of 180 meters and its spiral minaret is located outside The wall on the north side in the first increases added to the mosque in the following periods and this minaret is characterized by a unique design that has not been shown before in the building of Islamic mosques except in the Mosque of Samarra, which was also built by the Caliph. Fig.41 elevation of Abu dualf mosque Fig.40 plan of Abu daluf mosque 2-12-7- Fatimid architecture: Al-Akmar mosque: Historical background: The Mosque of al-akmar was built by the Fatimid caliph, the command of the rulings of God Abu Ali al-Mansur al-Mustaliin 1125 AD and his name is written on the façade of the mosque.
The mosque was renovated by Yelbageh al-Salmi, minister of Sultan Barquq of the Mamluk Jarksi, built his minaret, which fell in a Mamluk-style earthquake, renovated the mihrab and placed two columns in it, and established a platform and wrote on it that it was the work of that pulpit and on the mihrab. The first mosque in Cairo with a special geometric design for façade. Theoretical background: The roofs were wooden by baratim. It is the first mosque also has a façade parallel to the line of street organization instead of being parallel to the plate so that the qibla became its correct position and for this we find that inside the mosque is deviant for the façade and is made up of a small square dish of approximately ten square meters surrounded by a portico one of three sides and three corridors on the south-east side i.e. in iwan al-qibla and the arwiqa arches ornamented with decorative kufi inscriptions and mounted on old marble columns with different molded bases in the most beautiful wooden valleys in the most beautiful This mosque is façade, which is also known in its exquisite decorations and another façade in the mosques of Cairo and sees in its entrance for the first time in the architecture of the mosques the adorable decade that spread in mamluk architecture in the fifteenth century AD and above this contract there is the Persian decade and The most important feature in the design of the mosque is the use of muqarnas and the minaret of the Mosque of Al-gaioshi, which was spread almost all Islamic architecture after this mosque. Fig.43 elevation of al-akmar mosque Fig.42 plan of al-akmar mosque 2-12-8- Ayyubid architecture: Dome and mausoleum of Imam ash- Shafi’i: Historical background: In 1176, The First Building was built on the Tomb of al-Shafei.
In 1178, the wooden sarcophagus above the soil was completed. It is decorated with geometric fillings engraved in a very elaborate inscription, written on it by Qur’anic verses and translated by the life of al-Shafei and the name of his maker (Obaid al-Najjar) in kufic and Ayyubid scripts. In 1211, the mother of King Kamel Ibn al-Adel died and was buried in the soil of Al-Shafei next to al-Shafei’s tomb, so her full son built a dome covering the soil. A large part of the mausoleum he built remained. The current wooden dome, as well as the muqarnas and marble decoration, is one of the renovations carried out in 1480 by the Mamluk Sultan Qaitbay, as well as the mausoleum of the Mamluk Sultan Qansuh al-Ghuri. In 1772, the Ottoman Governor Ali Bey al-Kabir renovated the mausoleum’s wooden dome and added colorful decorative inscriptions that covered the interior walls, muqarnas and dome. Theoretical background: The dome consists of two layers, a wooden interior and an outer lead covered dome. The dome represents the top floor. It`s topped by a small copper boat installed in the place of the crescent dome, which is of the origin of the construction.
The mausoleum occupies a 15-metre-long square, 2.75 m thick and rises to approximately 20 m above ground. The lower half of the walls were built of stones and the rest of the bricks. The southern wall of the mausoleum contains three niches, the middle largest of which is decorated with stained marble frames and its tops decorated with wood carvings. Sultan Qaitbay created a fourth mihrab in the eastern corner of the same wall to correct the direction of the qibla. The dome that covers the mausoleum is a great dome and one of the most beautiful domes of Egypt, and rises from the floor of the mausoleum at a distance of 27 meters. The muqarnas are made of wood and engraved with copied inscriptions, and between the muqarnas are divided into windows of hollow plaster, which is ornamented with stained glass. Fig.44 plan of the mausoleum Fig.45 elevation of the dome Fig.46 section of the dome