Biosphere – zone on Earth where all life exists. Genes – units of inherited information that determine.Biodiversity- the variety of life in the world. This comes from the work of millions of years of evolution, as species adapt to changes in the environment (this is known as survival of the fittest/natural selection). This change/adapt to change in the environment allows species to become better and stronger in their environment with time. There are 3 levels of Biodiversity: Genetic Diversity – the sum of all the different genes present in a particular species.
Genes are different between each individual, however they can either be small gene differences or major gene differences to the point where the species has a different characteristic. These changes allow each population within the species to better adapt and evolve to environmental changes over time. Species Diversity – This refers to the diversity and abundance of species in an ecosystem. Each species has a different task within the ecosystem that help the ecosystem strive.
Also, certain species survive in certain ecosystems. Ecosystem Diversity – the diversity within ecosystems. Therefore, the difference between and range of habitats and the different organisms that live within them and the relationships between them. Everything within an ecosystem is connected, therefor any little change will have a major impact on the biodiversity of the ecosystem. Biodiversity is very important, as an ecosystem with a higher level of biodiversity has a better chance of surviving environmental changes. Keystone Species- these are species that have a tremendously large effect on the ecosystem in which they live. Their absence or presence can make or break the ecosystem.
Identifying organismsScientist use a system called the Dichotomous key to identify different species. This system works by asking two questions in a series to be able to distinguish between each species in a population. Taxonomy- is the science of naming, identifying and classifying species. Binomial Nomenclature- system of classifying and naming species. This is a two-part Latin name, this first part is the genus to which the species belongs, the second part is the species name. This is known as the scientific name for species. The system further classifies species into broader categories:-species-genus-family-order-class-phylum-kingdom *each level in the hierarchy is termed a taxon.
Binomial Nomenclature and the taxon levels use morphology to classify species. Morphology is the study of the form and structure of organisms. Therefore, classifying species by their physical appearance/anatomy. This however presents many issues, as species can look alike yet be completely different. Darwin proposed his theory of Phylogeny which classifies organisms based on evolutionary development and relation. Phylogeny can be classified into phylogenetic trees, which show the evolutionary connection between each species.