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Updated September 10, 2022

Utilitarianism Is The Most Significant Theory Of Ethics

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Utilitarianism Is The Most Significant Theory Of Ethics essay
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Among the all-available theories regarding ethics, the utilitarianism is the most significant one, which determines right from wrongs by focusing on the outcomes. The theory does not only define the rights from the wrong, but it also separates them in case of specific situation and incident as per the desired outcomes. It suggests a new dimension of ethical choice that can offer the greatest good for the greatest number of people. After the establishment of this theory, it has defined morality in a new way or perspective. The usability of this theory is limited in war or military where people hesitate to consider ethical decision-making without breaking morality. Moreover, due to the wide range of moral reasoning capability of this theory, it also considered in business context.

The theory is based on the consequentialism that an action can be right or wrong that vary on the anticipated consequences, not on the motive or intentions. The consequentialism is based mainly two different principles such as an act can be right or wrong that depend on the result or outcomes of the act and action will be how much right that depends on the act will create how much good consequences. Therefore, if one person wants to choose the right action, then the person should choose that action that will produce more good consequences and the theory suggest the way of good living is creating positive consequences. Actually, utilitarianism is a section of the concept of consequentialism. In the context of morel value, mainly two types of value are available such as instrumental value or extrinsic value and intrinsic value. The extrinsic value suggests that people should value most things instrumentally. Suppose, someone is using a washing machine for washing clothes and if it has been found that there is a scope of washing clothes in less expense than washing, the users should avoid the washing machine. On the other hand, the intrinsic value means if something is valuable if it is valued for its own sake. However, in the case of intrinsic value, people can sacrifice their happiness against the happiness of others. Therefore, the intrinsic value can be achieved through ensuring own happiness or happiness of preferable subjects of personnel. The difference between the intrinsic and extrinsic value is the intrinsic value refer to the one’s nature and it defines the person while the extrinsic value is means outside of someone’s nature and action that can be beneficial.

There are mainly two classical types of utilitarianism such as act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism. The act utilitarianism means the can act is right if it results in as much as any available alternative. Therefore, an act is right if it offers positive outcomes. Conceptually, it is complex to conduct any measurement in the aim of defining an act is right or wrong as we need to act spontaneously and quickly. As an example, someone can tell lie over the truth if there is a possibility that the lie will produce better outcomes or most utility. Another example is people should spend their income to support their family if there is no much important purpose of expenses. Therefore, as per the theory regarding act utilitarianism, people should involve in much activity that will bring the most utility. On the other hand, the rule utilitarianism suggests that an act will be right if it derived by rule or it presents a rule of a set of rules whose acceptance can result to the much utility that any available alternative. Naturally, humans are rule following creatures and they learn something by following the basic rules. As per the act-utilitarian rule, people should consider an act that will generate the most utility. Therefore, people can generate set of rules by considering the truthfulness and people should understand that the truth of lie would create more utility in case of particular context.

Along with these features, the utilitarianism theory or concept has both strengths and weakness. In the context of strength, the theory suggests achieving happiness that always a positive state of the human mind. Besides, the theory does not include any concept of any religion and any god. The main strength of this is it based on a single concept as creating the most utility that makes it reliable to use. As the theory suggests that anyone can define the good and do not suggest who has the much right define an act as right or wrong. Furthermore, if people continually judge actions as per the outcome that it will be complex for accurate judgements and their offers favouritism that people can be harmful to the non-preferable personnel.

In spite of the features, strengths and weaknesses, the theory regularly faced several objections due to its unclear concept. The utilitarianism theory has the most significant objection as the No-Rest Objection. The objection is the theory suggest to achieve happiness and act as the expectation of most utility and these two-concept do not satisfy each other in some specific context. Suppose, someone has the option to spend money visiting the theatre to see the movie but that money can be spent by helping poor people. In details, seeing the movie the friends will generate happiness but spending money to help poor people will refer to most utility from that money. Therefore, the concept of this theory is confusing. By following the utilitarianism, theory people can hesitate to take decision making in between achieving happiness and generation utility as much as possible. In contrast, people can be confused in between own happiness and others’ happiness. However, the utilitarian replied and designed a set of rules that help to choose between own happiness and others’ happiness by increasing the possibility of most utility. The rules suggest that people should not think much about the happiness of people who are not under own preference. Besides, people should judge the future in terms of making own happiness or happiness of preferable people. The utilitarian claimed that people could do something to avoid suffering from humanity. Moreover, people should live simply by minimising less important expenses and the main goal is enhancing the overall quality of our living (Pojman, n.d.).

Utilitarianism Is The Most Significant Theory Of Ethics essay

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FAQ

What does utilitarianism mean in ethics?
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that determines right from wrong by focusing on outcomes . It is a form of consequentialism Consequentialism is a class of normative, teleological ethical theories that holds that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct . Consequentialism . Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical choice is the one that will produce the greatest good for the greatest number.
What is the main theory of utilitarianism?
Utilitarianism is a theory of morality, which advocates actions that foster happiness and oppose actions that cause unhappiness . Utilitarianism promotes "the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people."
Why is utilitarian theory important?
Utilitarianism has important implications for how we should think about leading an ethical life. Because utilitarianism weighs the well-being of everyone equally, it implies that we should make helping others a very significant part of our lives .
Why utilitarianism is the best ethical theory?
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that determines right from wrong by focusing on outcomes. It is a form of consequentialism Consequentialism is a class of normative, teleological ethical theories that holds that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct . Consequentialism . Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical choice is the one that will produce the greatest good for the greatest number .
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