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Updated October 31, 2020

Synthetic Indian Culture

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Synthetic Indian Culture essay
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The contribution of Mithilā to the development of a synthetic Indian Culture is immense. At a time, Mithilā had a long literary tradition. Sanskrit was the main vehicle of expression and the chief source of learning. Even after the Muslim conquest of Tirhut in 1324 A.D., when Sanskrit ceased to be a living language in a greater part of India, Mithilā continued to cultivate it with all earnestness.

Writing in Sanskrit was considered to be a qualification and a sign of greatness and hence persons, even well-versed in languages, chose to write Sanskrit. But the common mass did not understand Sanskrit. So the scholars of Mithilā began to use vernacular terms and songs in Sanskrit drama to make the language popular. In those dramas speeches were to the in Sanskrit and Prākṛt and songs in Maithilī. Thus from 13th to 19th century Sanskrit dṛśyakāvyas in Mithilā had taken a new turn from the earlier ones in respect of languages. Of these three languages Sanskrit, however was the prominent one. Dramas like Parasannarāghava and Prabodhacandrodaya may be treated as of classical type.

But Dhūrtasamāgama, Gorakṣavijaya, Nalacarita, Ᾱnandavijaya, Pārijātaharaṇa, Gourīsvyamvara, Prabhābatīharaṇa, Uṣāharaṇa and such other about twenty variegated dramas came to exit. The dramas incorporating the three languages can be considered to be totally new type of Sanskrit dramatic composition. Here it should be noted that pure Sanskrit dramas were composed by eminent and trained poets, but the dramas containing three languages came from the pen of less renowned poets having knowledge of Sanskrit. They were certainly the poets of the soil and they prepared the dramatic pieces for the enjoyment of local people.

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