OCBs are those behaviors demonstrated by employees that are above and beyond the scope of the attendant’s job and may not be formally recognized by the organization and because they are not formally recognized these behaviors are not rewarded by the organization. There are five main categories of OCB and these categories are altruism, courtesy, conscientiousness, sportsmanship person and civic virtue. OCBs are important to improve organizational effectiveness, increase organizational productivity and improve organizational culture. Other benefits associated with are decreased employee turnover, customer satisfaction and increased profitability. According to researchers there are several methods for increasing occurrences of those needs, there is a segment of researchers that believe that OCBs are intrinsically motivated by personal needs, this intrinsic motivation may be explained by McClellan’s needs theory based on needs theory certain individual needs govern individual motivators for company.
The individual need for achievement the need for power and the need for affiliation are recognized as intrinsic motivators for achievement according to needs theory based on this theory employees choose to participate in an organizational citizenship behaviors in order to satisfy one or more of these personal needs. Organizational trust is the belief that leaders within an organization will make a good-faith effort to keep their word to employees, maintained honesty and avoid taking advantage of the employee because employees believe that their leadership for the organization is trustworthy.
They participate in behaviors to enhance the co-workers to improve performance social exchange theory posits that social behavior is an exchange process governed by the desire to maximize benefits and minimize cost based on this theory employees that believe their organization cares about them and values them engage in OC as to reciprocate the perceived support. Perceived organizational support is the belief that the organization and its leaders care about the employee and the employees will being. Some researchers believe that when employees feel that they are supported by their organization they participate in more positive OCBs.
However these OC B’s are those that benefit the organization such as positive top and positive internal branding rather than those behaviors that assist their co-workers and improving employees are more likely to participate in organizational citizenship type behaviors than those that are not engaged this may also lead to increased organizational effectiveness. some researchers believe that as the workplace evolves there is need for organizational citizenship behaviors to evolve as well the idea is that traditional OCBs will no longer be recognized by the evolving workplace and new types of behaviors will be recognized because the reduction in the manufacturing industry and the continued increase in knowledge workers the focus may Turner from categories such as altruism conscientiousness sportsmanship courtesy and civic virtue. Two categories such as employment state sustainability social participation civic virtue voice helping knowledge sharing individual initiative an administrative behavior this change demonstrates the need for the series to continue in the workplace but also to evolve as the work environment involves .