Mali in Africa as One of the Poorest Countries in the World

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Mali, Africa is one of the poorest countries in the world. Mali can be distinguished by its government, demographics,economics, and geography. These things make Mali different than any other state in Africa. It is important to learn about different African countries, so we can learn the rich history of counties besides our own. Now, we are also able to compare our history to others and see the mistakes we made, or they made. This way we will not make them again.


11th Century- The Empire of Mali becomes the dominant force in the upper Niger basin.

1230- Sundiata Keita founded the Mali Empire on the upper Niger River.

14th Century- The Mali Empire reached its height of power.

Late 14th century- The power in Mali slowly decreases.

1898- The French complete the conquest of the French Sudan (Mali and Senegal)

1959- Mali and Senegal form the Mali Federation (it spits a year later)

1960- Mali becomes independent. The president is Modibo Keita

Data Overview

  • Population – 17,885,245
  • Population Growth Rate – 3.02%
  • Infant Mortality Rate – 69.5 deaths/1,000 live births
  • Literacy Rate – 33.1%
  • GDP – $41 billion
  • GDP Per Capita – $2,200
  • Population Below Poverty Line – 36.1%
  • Inflation Rate – 1.8%


The Republic of Mali has a semi-presidential republic government. Mali has a president and a prime minister. The president serves a five year term with a limit of two terms. The current president is President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita. Mali’s president also chairs the Council of Ministers, this includes the prime minister and 28 other minister, including 5 women. (Global security, 2018)

Citizenship in Mali, Africa is very different than United State. In United States, if you are born here, you are a citizen, but in Mali, at least one of your parents has to be citizens. (cia, 2017)

Before the current constitution in Mali, there were many before it. The latest constitution was drafted on August 1991, and became effective on February 25, 1992. In order for anything to be changed in the constitution, it needs ⅔ majority vote by the Assembly and approval in a referendum. (cia,2017)

Significant Events

For eight years President Modibo Keita governed the new state of Mali. He distanced the country from France, its ruler of the past, and built a state run economy. Although he claimed to be non-aligned with other nations, he regularly supported the communist bloc. Keita didn’t have the most fair policies either, people were not very happy with him. This unhappiness created an environment just right for the army officers to take power. On November 19, 1968, the officers launched a coup that overthrew Keita and his government. Lieutenant Moussa Traore led the coup. The officers formed a fourteen-member Military Committee of National Liberation. This committee led Mali for ten years, from 1969-1979. After, Traore was re-elected president over Mali.

Mali had to armed fights with Burkina Faso over area by the border. One conflict took place in 1974-75 and the other one in 1985. The conflict in 1985 took place in December, and lasted five days. The dispute was taken to the International Court of Justice, and in 1986 they divided the land to make both sides happy.(Britannica, 2018)


Mali is located in the middle of Africa. It is landlocked, which means it has no colastlines. The capital of Mali is Bamako. Mali is one of the biggest countries on the continent. Mali measures a little less than twice the size of Texas. Most of the land is flat plains covered in sand. Some natural hazards in Mali are recurring droughts, and the Niger River flooding. Some of the current environmental issues are deforestation, loss of pasture land, and not enough supplies of potable water.


Mali, Africa is one of the poorest countries in the world. Mali is also has one of the highest birth rates. There are six children to one mother. This is the third highest birth rate in the world. To reduce poverty, and improve security in Mali, the birth rate needs to be slowed thereby reducing the population. There will be less people needing resources. Mali doesn’t have resources that are necessities. There is only 0.1 hospital beds for 1,000 people. In the United States, around 40% of people are obese. In Mali, only 8.6% of people are obese. There is not enough food to go around to everyone, let alone eat too much of! Mali is a very poor country.

48% of Mali’s population is children, 0-14. Lack of food and sickness is killing people early. A lot of babies are born a year, but many of them don’t live for much longer that their early adulthood years. I Mali, 42% of the population live in urban, developed areas. Only 37% of the people in urban areas have a sanitation system. In some areas, 100% of people have sanitation, but in other places, the percentage is much lower. In the winter months, many people from the rural areas migrate to the nearby villages and town to find odd jobs, and make a living. Mali has also become a transit city. It helps migration flow, and illegal migration to Europe.

Malians, as people living in Mali are called, speak mostly French. Before their colonization in 1960, they were a French colony. The next most popular language is Bambara. The most commonly practiced religion in Mali is Islam, 94% of the population, and next is Christianity, with 2%.

The Malian people are a nation suffering from intense poverty. They have a pretty established government, that had many ups and downs in the past years. The current risk factor of travel to Mali is very high. People are dissuaded from traveling to Mali because of the terrorism there. Mali is an interesting country with a very interesting history.

Cite this paper

Mali in Africa as One of the Poorest Countries in the World. (2021, Jul 23). Retrieved from https://samploon.com/mali-in-africa-as-one-of-the-poorest-countries-in-the-world/

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