Family planning is the practice of controlling the number of children one has and the intervals between their birth, particularly by the means of contraception or voluntary sterilization. There are certain modern contraception and other methods of birth control to regulate the number to regulate the number, timing and spacing of human birth. Population also contributes a lot, because of pressure on facilities such like hospitals, clinics and foodstuffs.
Due to these circumstance which can cause the lives of woman in Ghana. The effect of high fertility rate in woman and their children we need to control fertility. Women and young girls must know how closely to spaced their pregnancies and those who get old before they give birth. This attitude have risks for mothers and infants, with associated higher maternal and neonatal mortality rates. The health of the children in the family is also affected.
These factors, among others provide health rationale for fertility regulation in woman and must be consider as an essential element of preventive health care. The health of other children in the family is also affected. These factors, among others provide health rationale for fertility regulation and family planning, which is now considered an essential element of preventive health care. Even though, trends of increase in contraceptive use have been acknowledged widely (RAND, 1998; Ann et. al, 2002), currently an estimated 650 million or 62 percent of the more one billion married or in-union woman in reproductive age using contraceptive (RAND, 1998).
Whereas in the developed nation, 70 percent of married woman use contraceptive only 60 percent can be attributed in developing nations. Justification or reasons for undertaking the project Teenage pregnancy, infant mortality are on the raise among the youth in Dansoman number one apostolic church of Ghana. So therefore there is the need to educate them about the importance to the use of contraceptives and how it will help the women or the female adolescent of spacing their children and also save their lives. Also to educate them abstain from unwanted pregnancy, youthful marriage and unsafe abortion.
The role of male partner must be considered when talking about controlling fertility and family planning. Men have the ability to use or not to use certain contraceptive such as periodic abstinence, condoms and vasectomy independent of women’s contraception intention methods. Include in their role to control fertility role. According to Judith Frye Helzner(1996), author of Men’s involvement in family planning, evidence from many cultures suggest that men’s resistance to woman’s use of contraception is common. Such resistance can influence woman’s decision about contraceptives use.
Objective for the project work
- Introduce them on the various methods of family planning.
- Educate them on the importance of family planning.
- Create awareness of the youth in Dansoman apostolic church of Ghana about the dangers of early pregnancy.
Literature review Since 1990, researchers around the have used DHS data to investigate unmet need for family planning. This review focuses on studies that assess factors influencing the use of family planning methods. In most parts of the world, woman want to have smaller families; hence rapid population growth will not be an ongoing phenomenon.
Worldwide, nearly 100 million married woman would prefer to avoid pregnancy but are not using any method of family planning, which means that they have an unmet need for family planning (Robey,et al.,1996).Viable family planning programs could be devised through reliable and accurate estimate of the magnitude of unmet need for family planning.in most cases, women in the unmet need category are target of family planning programs since there is a discrepancy between their fertility goals and contraceptive practice (Westoff and Bankole,1998).
According to data generated from 27 DHS surveys between 1990 and 1994, unmet need for family planning ranges from 11 percent in turkey to 37 percent in Rwanda (Casterline et al., 1997).in the same period, it was found that unmet need is most prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. On average, fertility level in sub-Saharan Africa could be reduced by about one birth per woman if it were to meet the unmet need for family planning (Robert et al., 1996).likewise, the majority of currently married Ethiopian woman wants to control their future fertility. According to the 2002 Ethiopia demographic and health survey report, nearly one third of Ethiopian women do not want to have any more children, a figure that rose from one quarter in the 1990 national and fertility survey (NFFS).
In the 1990 NFFS, unmet need for family planning to limit childbearing was less than 1 percent among currently women, whereas the figure was 14 percent in the 2000 Ethiopia DHS survey. This implies that there is an increasing demand for fertility control (CSA, 1993; CSA and ORC Macro, 2001).thus, meeting the unmet need for family planning may play an important role in slowing the pace of population growth, improving maternal and child health and minimizing problems with naturel resources and the and the environment that prevail in Ethiopia.in many countries, the stated target the population policies ,i.e. increasing contraception use and decreasing fertility levels, could be achieved by eliminating the unmet need for family planning (Ross and Mauldin,1994;Westoff and Bankole, a1995).
Has considerable demographic and social significance, its root causes are still largely unknown (Dixon-Muller and Germain, 1992) Analysis of data from 13 DHS survey by Bongaarts and Bruce (1995) showed that lack of knowledge ,fear of side effects, and husbands disapproval were the principal reasons for nonuse among woman who were otherwise motivated to use family planning . A study by Westoff and Bankole (1995) using DHS –II date indicated that lack of information about family planning, opposition to family planning, and ambivalence about future childbearing were the principal factors responsible for unmet need for family planning.
Using the 1990 NFFS, Sahelyesus (1995) studied determinants of contraceptive nonuse and unmet need among married woman in urban Ethiopia. His findings showed that the number of 4 surviving children and ideal family size are the most important determinants of unmet need for family planning in urban Ethiopia. Similarly, reasons for not using a contraceptive method Ghanaian woman were assessed by Govindasamy and Boadi (2000) using data collected in the Ghana demographic and health surveys that were conducted in 1988 and 1998. According to their result, a significant number of woman of woman mentioned fertility-related reasons (infrequent sex, menopausal / sub fecund, postpartum/breastfeeding and wanting more children) as principal reason for nonuse.
Another report presented a review of literature on male attitudes and behaviors concerning family planning and male initiative in Africa .the result indicated that men often have positive attitude towards family planning, but women believe that their husband disapproves of family planning. The report further noted that spousal communication was positively associated with planning method use (Toure, 1996). However, another study conducted by Ezeh (1993) in Ghana showed that spousal influence, rather than being mutual or reciprocal, is an exclusive right of husband.