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Musculoskeletal Response to Exercise
The musculoskeletal response to exercise is that the muscle fibers during exercise will pull against one another and then result in the muscle fibres tearing. This mainly happens when you have worked the muscles to the stopping point. The muscle fibres will then grow back bigger and stronger than they were before. There are various different effects shown when we exercise. Common effects of short term effects of exercise is your skin color changing to red, sweating and heart rate increasing. This is because you need to get oxygen to your muscles quicker therefore the heart pumps blood around the body faster. When doing exercise our body temperature will increase as a result of your heart rate going up to allow more blood to be passed to your muscles. When exercising it is good for your joints as exercising encourages the production of synovial fluid.
You have briefly descriptions two responses to short term exercise. What happens to muscle temperature when we exercise and how does that affect the muscle? The last one you need to think about is what happens at the joints?
Musculoskeletal Sporting Example
An example of this is in athletics when you are running in a long distance eve nt such as the 800m or 1500m. This is because the body is required to work harder for a longer a period of time, therefore the muscles will need a large amount of oxygen as the cardiovascular and respiratory systems are unable to get any more oxygen so the energy system uses the ATP created by the long run to aid the muscles.
The first energy system that are body will use is the phosphocreatine system as it is the quickest energy system to recover. This energy system can only last up to 10 seconds and is anaerobic. When we use all our energy stores in our muscles then the lactic acid build up will increase. Lactic acid can help with fatigue, but only in small amounts.
A sporting example of this is the YoYo test which is a test where you have to run from line to line but stopping for 3 seconds each time and you gradually go up in levels. This will test your cardiovascular system to its limits and if you do this test often enough then your score will go up and it will get easier.
Whenever you start exercising your heart rate will naturally increase before you even start. This is called anticipatory heart rate. This happens before acute exercise the nervous system releases a chemical along with a hormone which comes for the adrenal gland. When we start exercise we start to use are cardiovascular system and this includes our heart rate increasing allowing for – vasconstriction and vasodilation. Vasconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels and vasodilation is the opposite (widening of the blood vessels). The body would want to narrow or widen parts of the body to allow more blood flow to the major muscles that are working as this will allow for better use of the muscles.
Short Term Effects of Exercise
A sporting example of when the energy systems are used during short term physical activity is in a 100m sprint. Short bursts of high intensity exercise, like a 100m sprint, may rely almost entirely on anaerobic respiration. Energy for sustained periods of exercise, like a marathon, will be provided by aerobic respiration.
Respiratory System Response to Exercise
When we take part in short term exercise the major change in the respiratory system is our breathing rate increasing, this means our breathing becomes heavier and quicker. This is because we need to get more oxygen to our muscles quicker therefore the lungs try and breath in and out faster. There are too different types of breathing which depend on whether the mind tells you to or if adrenaline makes you breathe faster, this is called neutral breathing and chemical breathing. Tidal volume also increases when we exercise and this is the volume of air that is breathed in and out in each breath.
A sporting example when our breathing speeds up through adrenaline could be in a dangerous sport such as rock climbing because this is an activity you have to do quickly but also carefully so the athletes heart will be beating faster because he is more scared providing normal breathing.