Hindi–Urdu controversy began within the 19th century within the sub-continent out of the controversy over whether the Hindi or Urdu languages should be chosen as a national language. Hindi and Urdu are very similar spoken languages, to the extent that they’re sometimes considered to be dialects or registers of one speech communication stated as Hindi-Urdu or sometimes Hindustani. However, they’re written in very different scripts: Devanagari (for Hindi) and a modified Persian-Arabic script (for Urdu). The Hindi–Urdu controversy arose in 19th century colonial India out of the controversy over whether the Hindi or Urdu languages should be chosen as a national language. The previous couple of decades of the nineteenth century witnessed the eruption of Controversy, which comprised ‘Hindi’ and ‘Urdu’ protagonists, each advocating the correct use of Hindi and Urdu language. Syed Ahmed Khan was one in all its noted advocates, additionally as Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk.
Hindustani was the language spoken in northern India (Hindustan), and it belongs to the Western Hindi language class of Central Indo-Aryan languages. Mughal rulers brought with them to India the Persian language. In cities like Delhi, Hindustani began to accumulate some Persian loanwords and continued to be called ‘Hindi’ additionally as ‘Urdu’. While Urdu retained the grammar and core vocabulary of the local Delhi dialect, it adopted the Nastaleeq (Noori Nastaleeq) writing. Urdu, like Hindi, may be a variety of the identical language, Hindi. It evolved from the medieval (6th to 13th century) Apabhraṃśa a register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language that’s also the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. Around 75% of Urdu words have their etymological roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit, and approximately 99% of Urdu verbs have their roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit. The remaining 25% of Urdu’s vocabulary consists of loanwords from Persian and Arabic languages.
the Controversy was based upon two languages and their people belonging to different religion, culture, and creed. Language, literature, religion and territorial allegiance were all aspects of being ‘Hindu’. All people who inhabited within the subcontinent called ‘Hindustan’ identified this word. Sections of this newly educated realized that Hindi and Urdu were really the identical language that had evolved within India but was written in several scripts. The so-called Hindi-Urdu controversy also revolved round the question of various scripts. Furthermore, the topic of this study, Pandit Malaviya, was one in all the leading advocators for the Hindi language written within the Devanagari script. The term ‘Hindu’ was accustomed distinguish the inhabitants of the sub-continent. Thus Hindui, Hindavi, Hindi was the language spoken by the ‘Hindus’. ‘Hindu’ was later used as a spiritual denomination for a range of closely inter-related faiths. However, the crystallization of Hindu as one faith like Islam was a creation of British historiography. Further, the first nationalists used ‘Hindu’ to hunt a more substantial unity as they invoked the shared cultural and historical heritage of the colonized population.
Controversy arose much criticism within the sub-continent. The Muslims wanted Urdu to become the national language while the Hindus wanted Hindi to become the national language. During the Controversy on weather which language should be made the national language political movements started within the sub-continent, Muslims started Urdu movement so as to guard the rights of the Muslims additionally because the Urdu language, the Urdu movement was led by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, and he was a keen supporter of the Urdu Language. There was an enormous debate among the political leaders of both the Hindus and therefore the Muslims. thanks to this Controversy, either of the languages should be made the national language the standard people suffered so as to induce jobs and communicate on a national level. This Controversy started the start and development of Pakistan. During this Controversy, the Muslim Leaders realized that the people living within the sub-continent are very different from one another, having different religions, customs, and traditions, and for them to survive, they demand a separate state.
Urdu-Hindi Controversy was one in all the numerous issues within the sub-continent after the war of independence both the Hindus and therefore the Muslims wanted their language to become the National language. The Muslims started a movement to support Urdu and to strengthen their cause so as to guard their rights. The Hindus started a movement against Urdu in Banaras and demanded to switch it with Hindi in Devnagiri Script, while the official language before this was Urdu with Persian Script, and it had been in practice even within the court. The headquarters of the movement was Allahabad. The direct conclusion of the Controversy was that the Muslims, like Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, who had been firm believers within the Hindu-Muslim unity, had very modest views about other communities, were ultimately induced that the Muslims were a separate nation. they need a separate and distinct identity supported their religion, rites, diets, dresses, and languages. These differences, within the future, paved the thanks to the Two-Nation Theory, which became the very foundation of Pakistan in 1947.
- Britannica – Hindi language
- Live Hindustan – Urdu Learning Time of Corona Lockdown: Hospital College Student Started Online Tuition for Rural Area Students
- DNA India – Let Urdu and Hindi flourish together in India
- India Today – Move to sideline Persian as teaching language in JNU: Students disrupt counselling session