Mother’s nutrition during pregnancy and lactation affects fetal growth and growth and contributes to the maturity of a healthy child. The lack of sufficient calories from macro and micronutrients can lead to defects in building materials for fetal growth and growth; moreover, there is growing evidence that the mother’s nutritional status can alter the genetic status of the genetic fetus and, consequently, nutrition During critical periods of fetal development may lead to adaptations in growth that permanently change physiology and offspring metabolism, and as a result, these individuals are predisposed to diseases such as adults.
In this review, we have collected indicators of the recommended intake of calories and nutrients for a healthy diet during pregnancy and lactation, as well as analyzing some dietary options that may increase the risk of undernutrition and the way to prevent it. Dietary changes associated with pregnancy should begin before pregnancy, with proper adjustments throughout pregnancy and lactation, and appropriate supplements of vitamins and minerals Keywords Nutrition, pregnancy, lactation, celiac disease, vegetarian diet, bariatric surgery.
From time immemorial it has been recognized that the pregnant and lactating women form one of the most nutritionally vulnerable segments of the population; the ill effects of maternal under nutrition affect not only the mother but also her offspring. In this unit, you will read about the nutritional requirements of women during pregnancy and lactation, the adverse consequences of under-nutrition and the intervention strategies aimed at minimizing if not eliminating these adverse effects. You may be already aware of the adverse nutrition and health consequences of “too early, too close, too many and too late” pregnancies on the mother child dyad. Contraceptive care is as an indirect effective intervention to improve.
Aim of the study
Research is needed to develop indicators of nutritional status for lactating women. First, the identification of normative values for nutritional status should be based on observations of representative, healthy, lactating women in the United States. In addition, indicators are needed of both (1) risks of adverse outcomes related to the mother’s dietary intake and (2) the potential of the mother or her nursing infant to benefit from interventions designed to improve their nutritional status or health. Also to identify groups of lactating women in the who are at nutritional risk or who could benefit from nutrition intervention programs.
Medical Definition of Pregnancy
The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. This condition can be indicated by positive results on an over-the-counter urine test, and confirmed through a blood test, ultrasound, detection of fetal heartbeat, or an X-ray. Pregnancy lasts for about nine months, measured from the date of the woman’s last menstrual period (LMP). It is conventionally divided into three trimesters, each roughly three months long.
Medical Definition of Nutrition
The process of taking in food and using it for growth, metabolism, and repair. Nutritional stages are ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, assimilation, and excretion. 2: A nourishing substance, such as nutritional solutions delivered to hospitalized patients via an IV or IG tube.
Swollen Breast: Symptoms & Signs
The process of milk production. Human milk is secreted by the mammary glands, which are located within the fatty tissue of the breast. The hormone oxytocin is produced in response to the birth of a new baby, and it both stimulates uterine contractions and begins the lactation process. For the first few hours of nursing, a special fluid called colostrum is delivered; colostrum is especially high in nutrients, fats, and antibodies, to protect the newborn from infection. Thereafter, the amount of milk produced is controlled primarily by the hormone prolactin, which is produced in response to the length of time the infant nurses at the breast.
See also breastfeeding. Nutrition and pregnancy Refers to the nutrient intake, and dietary planning that is undertaken before, during and after pregnancy. Nutrition of the fetus begins at conception. For this reason, the nutrition of the mother is important from before conception (probably several months before) as well as throughout pregnancy and breast feeding. An ever-increasing number of studies have shown that the nutrition of the mother will have an effect on the child, up to and including the risk for cancer, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes throughout life.
Micronutrient Requirements During Pregnancy
Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy has been associated with adverse outcomes, including increased risk of maternal and infant mortality, as well as low-birth-weight newborns (The Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the Institute of Medicine establishes life-stage specific dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for each micronutrient; these reference values should be used to plan and assess dietary intakes in healthy people. The DRIs include the estimated average requirement (EAR), the recommended dietary allowance (RDA), the adequate intake (AI), and the tolerable upper intake level (UL).
The RDA, which is the average daily dietary intake level of a nutrient sufficient to meet the requirements of almost all (97.5%) healthy individuals in a specific life stage and gender group, should be used in the planning of diets for individuals . The FNB establishes an AI when an RDA cannot be determined. The below recommendations are specific to the life stages of pregnancy and lactation. For most micronutrients, the RDA or AI for pregnant women is increased compared to nonpregnant women of the same age.
For certain nutrients, the relatively low intake of folic acid, vitamin B6, calcium, zinc, and magnesium during breastfeeding should be assessed on the mother’s nutritional status and health status in more detail. As part of this assessment, studies of absorption of calcium, zinc, and magnesium during the lactation period will be useful. There is also a need to determine a reliable indicator of vitamin B6 status for infants and to document the relationships between this indicator, taking maternal vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 content in milk. Finally, it is desirable to resolve the conflicting results of the effect of maternal protein intake on milk..
Although prenatal nutrition clearly affects maternal and child health in the near and long-term, many scientific questions remain unanswered due to the many challenges to high-quality scientific research during pregnancy. However, it is certain that the nutritional status of women and nutritional habits should be assessed in advance, with a view to improving the health of the mother, the fetus and the infant..