Table of Contents
What is Intelligence?
Intelligence is the ability where a person learns from his experience, solve problems in a frequent manner and use his knowledge to learn new things.
Charles Spearman denotes the general intelligence with ‘g’. He believes that intelligence involves various abilities, that correlate with each other to define a small general intelligence factor. On the other hand, Thurstone responded that if a person improves his one ability than the others abilities will improve automatically. The evidence from Garden’s multiple intelligences founded in people with savant syndrome and autism spectrum disorder. Stenberg found Analytical, Creative and Practical intelligence. Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive, understand, manage and the use of emotions.
We can assess the intelligence of any person with the help of intelligence, aptitude and achievement test. In an intelligence test, a person’s mental aptitude is compare with others by using numerical scores. Aptitude means the capacity to learn. With aptitude test, we can predict the individuals’ future performance. With the help of achievement test, we can assess what a person has learned.
Early and modern tests of mental abilities
Various scientists use different methods to check the individuals’ mental abilities. Francis Galton was an English scientist who was fascinated with measuring human traits. Alfred Binet was experienced in predicting the school achievement of any child. Lewis Terman generates the formula to measure the innate intelligence of a person. When the ratio of mental age and chronological age is multiplied by hundred we can check the IQ level of an individual.
The Dynamics of Intelligence
Psychologists use different methods to check the intelligence of an individual. Cross- Sectional is a test where people of different age-groups are compared with each-other. From this test, it is found that, older people have older people have less few correct answers as compare to younger ones, In a Longitudinal test, same person retest over time. It is found that intelligence of an individual remains same or sometimes increases over time.
Genetic and Environment Influences on Intelligence
In the intelligence test, identical twins scored same. It is as similar as same people take the test twice. It is also found that no wide environment have more predictive scores as compare to closer one. The neglected and adopted children score less as compare to other children. Mental similarities between adopted children and their adopted families decrease with age. Gender differences are minor in future, if we compare the gender similarities. Social expectations and opportunities are the effects of culture.
By checking the intelligence test scores, the great difference is found between boys and girls. Girls are better emotion detectors and are more sensitive to touch, taste and color as compare to boys. Boys outperform girls in tests of spatial ability and complex math problems whereas girls outpace boys in spellings, verbal fluency and locating objects. People with high scoring will generate more income and high education level in future. Blacks and white people also show similar information- processing skills. There are generation-to-generation differences in test scores within the same population. School and culture also plays a crucial role in this matter.