Ethnocentrism: to think that one’s race is the greatest, beyond. Nationalism: to think great about one’s nationality, about who belong where. GI Bill and who benefited and who didn’t; how Jews and other Euromales become White Irish: to become white meant ar first they could sell themselves piecemeal instead of being sold for life, later that they could compete for jobs in all spaces instead of being confined to certain work. To become white it meant to be citizens of a democratic republic, to have the rights to elect or be elected, to live wherever they could afford, to spend without racially imposed restrictions. ; they replaced black american’s jobs. Italians: they were members of ‘Nordic’, master race. They came as legally whites but were not able to attain white privileges. Jews: the US has a history of anti-semitism and beliefs that Jews were members of an inferior race. GI Bill: Jews benefited from it. Whiteness expanded to include Jewish people.
To develop needed labor-force skills, and to provide those who had them with a lifestyle that reflected their value to the economy. Foley’s points about assimilation, becoming American, becoming white How people of Mexican-descent become “Hispanic”: to identify as Hispanic is to acknowledge one’s ethnic heritage without surrendering one;s ‘whiteness’. LULAC, 1930 census and the establishment of “Hispanic White” To foster goals of Americanization, restricting membership to U.S. citizen and emphasizing English language skills, to set racial record straight. In 1930 census presumed Mexicans to be non-white unless definitely white. No measurements were specified to determine who or what was definitely white. Perception and treatment of Mexicans: de jure vs. de facto Mexican American in the Southwest experienced de facto based on custom rather than statutory authority.
Legally, their racial status is white but socially, economically, politically they were treated as non-whites. Resistance to assimilation and oppression by people of color Perception and treatment of Asians: de jure vs. de facto The possessive investment in whiteness; the role of white privilege in shaping the U.S. – provide examples of housing segregation The possessive investment in whiteness through housing segregation can be portrayed by channeling loans away from older inner-city neighbourhoods and toward white home buyers moving into segregated suburbs, the FHA and private lenders after World War II aided and abetted segregation in US residential neighbourhood. Whiteness and invisibility; white privilege Racial project v. racist project; affirmative action Racial project: using cultural and social structures to give meaning to racial categories.Projects are only racist if they reproduce structures of domination and hegemony.
Omi and Winant. Racist project:a race project that essentializes race and reinforces the racial status quo.; anti-racist project: challenges the racial status quo. Environmental racism: what made the possessive investment in whiteness a matter of life and death. Ex: Lesser African American would die each year if they had access to healthcare, wealth and protection against environmental hazards which are offered to whites. Important laws Naturalization Law of 1790: granted citizenship to white born in the US and limited naturalization to immigrants who were ‘free white person’. Birthright citizenship: gaining citizenship in the country of one’s birth. Naturalization: the process whereby people become citizens of a country where they were not born. Dredd Scott vs. Sandford, 1857: the supreme court ruled that free blacks were not citizens of the US. Even after slavery ended in 1865, blacks were granted the rights to vote in 1868, they still faced tremendous barriers to full citizenship.
Ozawa vs. the U.S., 1922: Supreme court denied his petition on the basis that he was not white though his skin colour was lighter than some of people considered as whites. Immigration Act of 1917 – Asian Barred Zone: ( India, Burma, Malaya, Arabia, Afghanistan), to improve the racial composition of the US, Immigration Act of 1924 – Quota Act: Johnson Reed Act, to increase ‘Nordic’ population. Passports, Visas required to enter US. Ignored the presence of Asians, Africans in US, set quota of 100 immigrants a year from China, Japan, India, Ethiopia, Liberia and South Africa Alien Land Act: prevented people ineligible for citizenship from owning lands, example Japanese Executive Order 9066 – JAs interment Mendez vs. Westminster: Federal circuit court in California ruled that segregating children of Mexican descent was unconstitutional. 1954 Brown v. the Board of Education 1964 Civil Rights Act: banned discrimination in employment practices and public accommodations. 1965 Voting Right Act: restored voting rights to all citizens
. 1965 Naturalization and Immigration Act Modern day racism (prejudice, discrimination, discourse) vs. blatant prejudice and discrimination of the past Aversive racism that come out in ambiguous situations Aversive racism: Unintentional, subconscious discrimination that occurs in ambiguous or spontaneous situations from people who avoid being racists when right and wrong is clear. Stereotype threat: refers to the experience, being in a situation or doing something for which a negative stereotype about your group applies. Self-fulfilling prophecy (1: internalized racism and 2: by outsider) Colorblind racism: the idea that we should ignore skin colour. 4 frames: Abstract liberalism: involves using liberal ideas such as equality of opportunity or freedom of choice to explain or justify racial inequality. Ignores the structural factors that both created segregation and perpetuate it. Cultural racism: relies on culturally based explanation. Ignore the fact that high unemployment rates among black men in urban areas are due to a host of structural factors that make it extraordinary difficult for them to obtain employment.
Naturalization: permits people to explain racial phenomena as if they are natural. Segregation not because of structural factors, but because it’s normal or natural. Minimization of racism: suggest that discrimination is no longer a central factor affecting life chances of people of colour. 3 nonracial explanations: cultural limitation; naturally occuring phenomenon; market dynamics Definitions of white privilege; the role of white privilege in the perpetuation of racial inequality; examples White privilege: special rights, advantages and immunity granted to white people. Acknowledging and challenging whiteness To understand the advantage and disadvantages. We have to face our own privileges Open up to learning about how group inequality benefits some while punishing some Become comfortable with the discomfort of growing individuals Becoming allies Meritocracy as a myth; racial, gender, class, sexual, age privileges meritocracy and ideology; rugged individualism;
Horatio Alger’s stories Meritocracy: Government or the holding of power by people selected on the basis of their ability. believe that people at the bottom just didn’t work hard enough. Talks on race and why Whites and people of color have very different perspectives; silence and fear Discrimination of white on people of color and discrimination amongst people of color in context of white supremacy; also discussed in “Color of Fear” There are stereotypes on each races and that is what shapes the mindset and thoughts of different groups of people, which creates a division amongst people of colour. Just like whites feel superior to other races, there are minority groups who feel superior to others and they want to be the dominant one, but when in seeing the bigger picture, whites still believe they are the superior race.
The purpose and points that Jane Elliott made in the film “Blue Eyed” about how evil persists and her view about racism and our responsibility as human beings.: Jane Elliot’s purpose in conducting her workshop was to show the blue-eyed people how people of color, and brown-eyed color people, are treated and how the blue-eyed people do nothing about it. She wanted to show the blue-eyed people, only partial of, what other people around them are expected to do and how blue-eyed people are racists towards other groups of people. Jane wanted both groups to switch roles(without the blue-eyed people knowing) and have the brown-eyed people to assimilate/act White and treat them the way the blue-eyed people treat them Examples of racial dialogues and racial perspectives from the “Color of Fear” film Victor states that a person must give up their ethnicity to become American. Power; Hegemony;
Resistance 3 types of power: coercion, authority, manipulation Coercion: to force someone to do something by violence, to have power Authority: the person who has the power hegemony; power elite; main points in Addicted to War Hegemony: to have consent by talking or convincing them to do it Milgram’s experiment on obedience; conformity; the banality of evil Differential effects of oppression and resistance as we consider the different levels of power and moving from individual to group and institutions and from a passive stance to an active stance- matrix shown in class prejudice v. discrimination individual v. institutional level of oppression or resistance Being passively biased (prejudiced) to actively biased (discriminates); Being passively unbiased (non-prejudiced but enjoys privilege) to being actively unbiased (anti-racist).
Racism, fear, and silence Beverly Tatum: silence on racism because fear of: Not wanting isolation from friends and family Ostracism for speaking of things that generate discomfort Rejection by those who may be offended by what we have to say Physical harm caused by individuals who disagree with our point of view Ways for Whites to become allies to people of color To be friends with people of colour To Listen to people of colour such as the discriminations and racisms they face on a daily basis To be comfortable with discomforts Yuri Kochiyama and anti-racist activists: She was a political activist who fought for justice and human rights. Worked with black panthers Supported civil rights but much more radical. COINTELPRO (Counter-intelligence Program) sabotaged and imprisoned Black Panthers and Young Lords, some of whom are still political prisoners COINTELPRO is counter intelligence program by the FBI.
They are political activist who catches people they see as therorist, as threat. Arrested Black Panthers and Young Lords, some of whom are still political prisoners for false charges. 442nd Regimental Combat Team: fought in World War II, famous in military for their achievements Assimilationist model; Reformist model; Radical model -separatist Assimilationist & Reformist model: Civil rights movement ( MLK, Jr) Radical model: self determination and separation ( Malcolm X ) Black Panther Lessons from “Storm at Valley State” film It is CSUN now. It involved the faculty and administrations.
The students wanted investigation on a racist coach and to expand the EOP program Black students were tired of racist so they decided to fight against it. It took place on campus Time period involved: Vietnam War (1960) Watched this film to get together, to see the connection of different oppression in life and to help & support each other. Analysis and Conceptualization of issues Different ways to conceptualize/define and measure ‘racial inequality’ It is measured by the gaps between racial groups in terms of: Educational achievements( GPA, college graduates) Socio economic status ( income, employment) Health measurements Political participations ( voting, activism) Crime ( sentencing, tickets ) Self-fulfilling proficiency Cultural values ( how one is raised) Micro-aggression ( prejudice) – intentional Aversive racism – unintentional [below] Different explanations for the persistence of racial inequality Internalized racism (Lisa Park’s sister); self-fulfilling prophecy 1 Individual prejudice and discrimination: when one discriminates against another on the basis of race or ethnicity.
Racial microaggression, includes daily insults that affects the psychological well-being of people of color. Self-fulfilling prophecy 2 Stereotype threat: refers to the experience, being in a situation or doing something for which a negative stereotype about your group applies. Aversive racism: Unintentional, subconscious discrimination that occurs in ambiguous or spontaneous situations from people who avoid being racists when right and wrong is clear. Institutional racism (de jure and unintentional): refers to policies, laws, and institutions that reproduce racial inequalities. Targets a group of people. Also exist in educational systems, housings, and the labor market. White privilege: special rights, advantages and immunity granted to white people.
Legacy of de jure racism and institutional racism (structural racism) Culture of poverty; model minority thesis: a cultural explanation of Asian American success. A cultural expectation put on Asian American as a group that each individual will be smart, wealthy, hardworking and never need of assistance. Racial stereotyping. Striping you away that you as an individual can be smart and talented, but it’s because of your race. Colorblind racism: the idea that we should ignore skin colour. Structural racism; systematic racism Systematic racism: racist practices, combined with daily microaggressions, anti black ideologies, white racist ideologies, institutions created to preserve white advantages and power Structural racism: interinstitutional interactions across time and space that reproduce inequality. The political/policy implication of a particular explanation for racial inequality. That is, the solution to the cause/factor/contributor to racial inequality The model minority thesis and its implication: a cultural explanation of Asian American success. A cultural expectation put on Asian American as a group that each individual will be smart, wealthy, hardworking and never need of assistance. Racial stereotyping. Striping you away that you as an individual can be smart and talented, but it’s because of your race. Hourglass economy; immigration as a selective process.