Translation is an incredibly broad notion, a very complex process which “de-pends not only on the artistic intuition, but on a controllable analysis, an acquired competence, gained systematically” ,for which at the end to be considered a work of art. The translator plays a significant role in the act of translation. In order to become a good translator means to practice it constantly and to have a good knowledge in this field.
The consequences of choosing not the proper term for a translation can have a catastrophic impact and that is why the practice of improv-ing methods and procedures is essential. Nevertheless, a perfect translation is not possible because the structure, the grammar rules and the codes in the source and target langue are different. In their attempt to achieve a high-quality translation, translators are challenged to create their work product in a creative manner, but observing the standards.
A good translator must possess these skills and qualities: the capacity of understanding a text into a foreign language from its first reading, to have a certain familiarity with the matter concerned, to be sensitive in mastering the language in the source and target text, to understand the message and the pur-pose of his translation. If he is not able to deal with semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic structures, the translation is not achieved properly. A translator- like a mediator between languages and culture- must be endowed with a set of strong competences, intuition and to be enlightened by historical evidence, social and cultural norms and ethno-cultural diversity, culture symbolism.
Nowadays translation can be perceived from two different approaches: a) as a process of producing the translation, and b) as a product. In the first situation, at-tention is guided towards the translator who transposes the source text, (ST) into the target text(TT). The second approach is guided towards the translation itself as a process. Translation can be seen as an inter-linguistic procedure which means the interpretation of the meaning of the source text with the goal of achieving an equivalence between the texts, considering the conditions imposed for the transla-tor in the act of communication.
Translating written texts is a sort of just indirect speech, because the translator is not an author, he renders only the texts already created, and there is no need of personal interpretations as in oral or, gestural translation. The Thesaurus dictionary explain obviously the origin of the verb to translate, (c.1300), “to remove from one place to another’’, or “to turn from one language to another’’.
Translate (and related notion such as: translated, translating) derives from the Latin word translatus” carried over’’, a past participle of transferre’’ to bring over, carry over), from trans’’across’’+ ferre (-latio˂ latus, the past participle of ferre). Hence, the word translation means to carry/bring across the content from one langue into another language.
From a linguistic point of view, translation represents the totally of verbal signs from a language reflecting the meaning of another language, a sort of transfer be-tween languages. In this aspect, the Russian Linguist Roman Jakobson explains that there are three methods for translating the verbal code: intralingual, interlin-gual and intersemiotic translation.
Intralingual translation (rewording) – verbal sign(word) is replaced by another verbal sign belonging to the same language.
Interlingual translation (translation proper)- the verbal sign is replaced by an-other verbal sign belonging to another language.
The linguist asserts that there is not possible to have a perfect synonymy in these two methods but they can be relevant in the case of borrowings and meta-language. (a language which makes statements about another languages)
Intersemiotic translation(transmutation) – the translator does not focus on the verbal sign, but only perceiving holistically the message of a text. Nevertheless, the linguist is aware of the fact that there could exist a major equivalence problem for all these three translation methods, when having different grammatical catego-ries in the target text. At the same time, an interesting view on cognitive experi-ence is given by Jakobson: “All cognitive experience and its classification is con-veyable in any existing language.
Whenever there is deficiency, terminology may be qualified and amplified by loan-words and loan-translations, neologisms or seman-tic shifts, and finally, by circumlocutions’’ (p.116)Jacobson considers that it is not possible for the translators to respect accurately the fidelity when the target lan-guage(text-TT) contains a very complex grammar which is not mirrored by the source language(text-ST).