This chapter presents the related literature and studies about prevalence of obesity after the thorough and in-depth search done by the researchers. This will also present the theoretical and conceptual framework to fully understand the research and for better comprehension of the study.
Related Foreign Literature
The federated states of Micronesia (FSM) has received considerable attention for their alarming rates of overweight and obesity. On Korea, one of the four districts in the FSM, 88% of Adults aged 20 or older has a (BMI>25), 59% are obese (BMI>30), And 24% are extremely obese (BMI>35) (Cassels, 2006).
Roshania, Narayan and Oza-Frank (2008) found that immigrants are rapidly growing subgroup, overweight/obesity among the foreign-born in the U.S especially regarding the effect of age at arrival and the obesity prevention should be a priority.
Barcenas and Wilkinson (2007) An article shows the evaluation of association birthplace between (Mexico or U.S) to analyze the duration of U.S residency and prevalence of obesity in Mexican immigrants. (Strom, 2007) States in U.S born adults had an increased risk (between 34% and 65%) of obesity compared with their Mexican born counterparts.
According to (Barrington et al. 2010) states that examination of sex and education variation in obesity among U.S and foreign born whites, blacks and Hispanics utilizing 1997-2005 data from the National Health Interview survey on 267,585 adults aged ≥ 18 years old. Obesity is one of the most serious health problems in the world. Asian Americans are usually less overweight and obese than African and the rate of obesity in Asian Americans is still increasing especially in younger generations (Nam, 2013) states this research examines Asian Americans obesity using existing research, as a means of finding the need for greater emphasis on Asian American.
Childhood obesity s a global epidemic and rising trends in overweight and obesity are apparent in both developed and developing countries (MAT Flynn, and DA McNeil et al. 2006) The estimates for period between 1980’s and 1990’s show the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children increased by a magnitude of two to five times in developed countries (e.g. from 11% to over 30% boys in Canada) and almost four times (e.g from 4% to 14% in Brazil).
The review was guided by a list of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States commonly known as “COCOMO” strategies (Calancie &Leeman et al. 2015). Findings from this literature review provide guidance on adapting and implementing policy and environmental strategies in rural communities in the United States and Canada. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cinhal, and PAIS data bases for articles published from 2002 through May 2013 those reported findings from physical activity-related policy or environmental interventions conducted in the United States and Canada (Sumrall & Patterson 2016).
Dramatically increasing the prevalence of obesity especially among children, has become a major public health problem in Europe (Fussenegger, et al. 2008). The aim of this paper is to report the latest developments in the fight against obesity at different political levels across Europe, with special attention to the major results of the recent World Health Organization European Ministerial Conference a Counteracting obesity.
Related Local Literature
The National prevalence of obesity in the Philippines has started to show an upward trend from 1993 to 2005; based on the facts and figures 2005 (Cua, 2009). The prevalence of obesity, using a cut-off point of BMI 85th percentile, has doubly increased from 2.4% to 4.8% (1993 to 2005) among adolescent (11-19 years old) based on the Nutritional Survey by FNRI did not show a significant change from 2005 to 2008 (4.6%). A local study (2009) reported a higher overall prevalence of overweight and obesity (21%) among adolescents in Metro Manila.
According to Chen & Florax (2010) several state communities have started to experiment with policy initiatives that affect the built-up environment an attempt to decrease the prevalence of obesity. The focus of these policy measures has generally been to eliminate geographical disparities in access to food.
Obesity and diabetes are increasingly attributed to environmental factors however, little attention has been paid to the influence of the “local” food economy. (Salois, 2012) This article examines the association of measures relating to the built environment and “local” agriculture with U.S country-level prevalence of obesity and diabetes. This paper employs a robust regression estimator to account for non-normality of the data.
The simultaneous increases in obesity in almost all countries seem to be driven mainly by changes in global food system, which is produced more processed, affordable, and effectively marketed food than ever before. This passive overconsumption of energy leading to obesity is a predictable outcome of market economies predicated on consumption a based growth (Swinburn & Sacks et al. 2011).
Recent studies examine the impact of the built environment on health outcomes such as obesity. Several studies find for certain populations that access to unhealthy food has a positive effect obesity, whereas access to healthy choices has a negative effect.(Berning, 2012) The author examine how individual weight outcomes are affected by access to direct-to-consumer local food and a greater access to local food has a negative association with individual weight outcomes and greater weight loss over a one-year period, the local food access can have potential indirect benefits.
Related Foreign Studies
Although immigrants are rapidly growing subgroup known about overweight/obesity amobg the foreign born in the United States, especially regarding the effect of age at arrival (Narayan, 2008). This study determined whether overweight/obesity prevalence is associated with age at arrival of immigrants the data analyzed on 6,421 adult immigrants, defined by BMI of >25 kg and prevalence varied by age t arrival (P<0.001) Immigrants <20 years old at arrival who had resided in the United States >15 years were 11 times (95% confidence interval; 5.33,22.56) more likely to overweight/obese than immigrants <20 years old at arrival who had resided in the United States <1year.
The 2013 community health assessment was undertaken by the Healthy Chinatown Alliance at the Boston Chinatown Neighborhood Center (BCNC) to assess childhood obesity and pre-obesity among vulnerable Asian American and Native Hawaiian Pacific Islander children and families in Boston Chinatown, and to identify opportunities and barriers to the promotion of healthy eating, physical activity, and healthy living (Lee & Huang et al. 2015).
According to Thomas & Janusek (2018) The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity prevention behaviors of Asian Indian adolescent females and determine the relationship of these behaviors to cardiovascular risk factors.
A study by Umer, Kelley & Innes (2017) Overweight and obesity are a major public health concern that includes associations with the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors despite the high prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity. The purpose of this study was to use the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to address this gap. The results of this study suggested that childhood obesity may be a risk factors for selected adult CVD risk factors. However, a need exist for additional, higher-quality studies that include, but are not limited to, both unadjusted and adjusted measures such as BMI before any definitive conclusions can be reached (Prospero, 2015).
According to Ford, Mokchad & Deborah (2005) the examination of variation in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes in weight loss counseling by health providers and in other potential obesity-related determinants in 100 metropolitan statistical areas in the United States.
Perchiatric obesity, which has reached epidemic proportions in the United States in the past 10 years, translates directly into rising rates of adult obesity. (Gombosi & Olaren 2007) This study assessed the impact of a school, family, community and Industry-based primary intervention project on the rates of overweight and obesity in a rural countrywide cohort of children. the specific rates of overweight and obesity of the participatory children showed that overweight and obesity rates increased for all cohorts.
Over the last decade, the prevalence of obesity in Western and Westernizing countries has more than doubled a standardized classification of overweight and obesity, based on the body mass index now allows a comparison of prevalence rates worldwide for the first time. (James, 2004) The International Obesity task force age and BMI specific cut-off points are increasing being used. The prevalence rates for overweight and obese people are very different in each.
The prevalence of obesity is continually increasing worldwide. Determining risk Factors for obesity may facilitate effective preventive programs. The present review focuses on sleep duration as a potential risk factor for childhood obesity (Larsen, 2007) The aim is to summarize the evidence on the association of sleep duration and obesity and to discuss the underlying potential psychological and/or patophysiological mechanisms.
The potential biological basis that might explain why obesity-related outcomes differ dramatically between Hispanics and African Americans. In the following sections the key ethnic differences in obesity-related phenotypes between African Americans and Hispanics that suggest a possible biological basis to explain the ethnic disparities that exist in obesity-related disease outcomes in this two ethnic groups (Goran, 2008).
Related Local Studies
The objective of this review was to update Sobal and Stunkard’s exhaustive review of the literature on the relation between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity (Psychology Bull 1989; 105: 260-75). Diverse research databases were comprehensive searched during the years 1989-2004 inclusive, using “obesity,” socioeconomic status,” and synonyms as search terms (McLaren, 2007).
A study by Dahly & Adair (2013) The objectives of the study were to test for spatial clustering of obesity in a cohort of young adults in the Philippines, to estimate the locations of any clusters and to relate these to neighborhood-level urbanity and individual level socioeconomic status (SES).
More research is needed on the socio-environment determinants of obesity in lower-and middle-countries. the effect of multiple-level indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) or the odds of overweight a central adiposity in a birth cohort of young adult (mean age 21.5y) Filipino males (n=987) and females (n=819) enrolled in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. overweight was defined as BMI>25 kg/m2 and central adiposity was defined as a waist circumference >85 cm for males on >80 cm for females. And positively related to overweight and central adiposity in males (P<0.05) (Kaufman & Lookin et al. 2009).
The relationship and several social factors was investigated among 1,660 adults (Moore, 2008) States an inverse relationship previously described between obesity and parental socioeconomic status was also found between obesity and one’s own socioeconomic status. Obesity was six times more common among women of low status. Furthermore, upwardly females were less obese (12%) These findings suggest opportunities for more effective weight control measures through programs especially for populations at high risk.
According to Dineros & Sinamban 2007) The procedures of bariatric surgery and outcome as part of a weight management program in a tertiary core private hospital in the Philippines is reported from years 2002 to 2004. 50 patients were included of which 60% underwent Loparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding (LAGB) and 40% Rauxen-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGBP).