Ethnographic Essay Examples

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What is Ethnographic Research Analytical Essay

Introduction When we speak about a qualitative research study, it’s easy to think there is one kind however, just as with quantitative approaches, there are actually many varieties of qualitative approaches. A popular and helpful categorization separate qualitative methods into these groups namely ethnography, narrative, ethnomethodology, qualitative comparative analysis, phenomenological, grounded theory and case study. The…



Scientific Method

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Pages: 7
Words: 1690

Critical Ethnographic Research

This chapter will introduce the philosophical underpinnings, research paradigm, methodology, and theoretical framework that will be used to explore my overarching research question: How is food literacy conceptualized and communicated? This research was approached using a critical research paradigm, tenets of critical ethnography, and a case study approach to inform my understanding of FL in…



Food And Culture

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Pages: 10
Words: 2317

Ethnographic of Health

Furthermore, by applying the Syndemics framework to two contrasting Indigenous ethnographic contexts; we can examine how the intergenerational embodiment of colonial biosocial forces establish differing social understandings and vast contemporary health inequalities, disease and illness between Indigenous and Western groups. Historically, the establishment of European colonisation in Australia had led to the subordination of Indigenous…




Healthy Lifestyle

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Pages: 4
Words: 836

Ethnographic of Healthcare

This journal article explains what ethnography, also known as field research, is and when it is used. The article goes into further explanations of the strengths and limitations of field research with a section explaining field research in healthcare. This article explains the aim of field research as the ability “to gain insight into the…


Scientific Method,

Universal Health Care

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Pages: 2
Words: 374

Argument Mapping of William Labov’s Article

The goal of this paper is to present an ‘argument mapping’ of William Labov’s article, “The Logic of Nonstandard English”.The way I will proceed to map Labov’s argument is by defining terms and enhance all the supporting evidence that I find important in understanding the full argument. I will then go on to map the…


Great Britain,


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Pages: 4
Words: 993

Ethnographic: Types of Qualitative Research Analytical Essay

Two of the three types of qualitative research include phenomenological research and ethnographic research. Phenomenological research is a type of research that seeks to describe a phenomenon from individuals’ perspective and experiences (Grand Canyon University, 2018). This research study does not provide further explanation of the phenomenon rather a description of a particular phenomenon. Information…





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Pages: 2
Words: 471

Ethnographic Study of Customers

Introduction For my ethnographic study, I decided to observe Boots in Buchanan Galleries. I was interested in the overall workplace of a retail setting. Boots has roughly 2500 stores ranging in sizes. The company are very passionate about their mission which is “To be the first choice for pharmacy, health and beauty – caring for…


Consumer Behavior,



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Pages: 5
Words: 1210

Ethnographic and Scientific Realism

Introduction Scientific realism assumes that our scientific theories provide us with an approximate, if not an absolute, description of mind-independent reality (MIR) (Psillos 1999: xix). If true, then it follows our observations must be sufficiently accurate, generally speaking, for our theories to be. No matter how often they are verified, however, the fact that scientists…



Scientific Method

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Pages: 3
Words: 706

Issue in Ethnographic Research

During my research throughout the semester, I came across situations where I had struggled. These certain situations were because I am also part of the community that I was researching for my ethnographic account. I found it to be a bit challenging for me to maintain the point of view of an outsider. Often, I…




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Pages: 3
Words: 671

Ethnographic Facts in Article The logic of Nonstandard English

The goal of the following paper is to present an ‘argument mapping’ of William Labov’s article “The logic of Nonstandard English.” In the process of mapping, I will first define any terms that are necessary to understanding the article. I will then state what I believe to be the author’s main assumption in the article….



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Pages: 4
Words: 938
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What is Etnographic

Ethnographic fieldwork provides anthropologists with more accurate primary resources than secondary material. The secondary material may cause many deviations. Many societies are isolating and speaking their own language. To communicate with the locals, anthropologists have to master the foreign language in a short time. When they interview the locals, some misunderstandings and poor expressions are inevitable. Under this situation, accuracy would be discounted. After collecting the information, anthropologists maintain ethnocentric attitudes, which is “the practice of judging another society by the values and standards of one’s own society” to write the report (Scupin2015, 50).

 Ethnocentric attitudes make reports more biased and subjective. Some confusion or blurry description will mislead readers when the article gets published. (eg) secondary source is based on the scholars’ interpretation of the first hand material, and scholars have their own understanding which might be different from the other scholars and readers. Thus, the secondary information pushes people away from the truth. Anthropologists have a more straight forward feeling by immersing in the local culture. They have a chance to observe the local’s habits, social relationship, and time allocation which means how much time the people in the society spend in various activities. All of the details can reflect on their norms and beliefs to some degree. Besides, some emotion or spirits cannot be described by language, they can only be understood by participants. The understanding is hard to record, but it does exist. In Greek, even the locals don’t always know why they perform their rituals, like fire walking, but the act of participation itself makes them feel more meaningful and important (Xygalatas 2014). 

A person may never be astonished by the atmosphere and understand their behavior unless he or she is on the scene. Ethnographic fieldwork enriches the universal store of human knowledge. The scarcity of resources is a great problem. Many locals’ activities and living habits are never been recorded, and many reports and papers have been destroyed and lost as time goes by. Thus, conducting fieldwork is necessary and crucial. The fieldwork can generate many primary resources, like videos or research reports. These primary resources can be shared easily through the internet or specific system called Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) which contains descriptive ethnographic data on more than 300 societies. Countless descriptions constitute the valuable database which enables scholars to retrieve information quickly and access to the differences and similarities among the culture. (Scupin 2015, 141) fieldwork contributes a lot.



Some ethnographic fieldworks push anthropologists to a dangerous situation, since some fieldwork researches may bring anthropologists either physical harm or mental harm. If anthropologists chose a violence issue, it is very likely for them to go to a violent society or a country full of warfare. Having field research in such places, the anthropologists’ life would be threatened. A bomb cannot control its injury scope, so many innocent people die in warfare. Anthropologists may be suffered under this chaotic situation. Besides, anthropologists are suffered by someone intentionally when they involved in some confidential areas, like military secrets, or information which stains their countries reputation. In 1995, a passage titled “reflections om managing Danger in Fieldwork” presents that although the constitution provides for freedom of speech and expression, under the Official Secrets Act the government may prosecute anyone who publishes or communicates information that could be harmful to the state.

In the view of mental, there is some influence. “people tend to associate the research that a researcher is conducting with the researcher himself”(Henslin 1972;55) which means people may be assimilated with a group after a period of living. As Henslin said, if people do research on violence society and live with them, he or she may have savage act and become violent. Thus, anthropologists have to be cautious and keep themselves out of the danger.

Another weakness of ethnographic fieldwork is inaccurate. These deviations can be caused by native people or anthropologists. The observed effect refers to “how people change their behavior when it is observed and set down.” Applying this term to Native people, they may feel uncomfortable and behave differently from usual when anthropologists are observing them. Besides, Fieldwork can be high in relevance and ecological validity while lacking control and precision. (Xygalatas, 2019) Anthropologists cannot either transfer huge equipment to their target places nor remove all the confounding variables existing in the field. Thus, anthropologists cannot produce a scrupulous cause-and-effect conclusion, but a relationship between two variables. 


Ethnographic Comparison

Throughout the duration of this composition, I will provide cultural information depicted from the African, Indian, and Chinese cultures. The information will consist of background information, societal issues, policies that are implemented, and the profound decisions, law making and the way a group of individuals live in general. (Petrakis, Kostis, 2013) explained how cultural differences were a notion utilized in policy creation that highlights the impact of cultural capital on population and individual behavior.

The cultural and social capital’s experience stress when the individuals in charge of policy creation and how policies come into contact with financial incentives and the access to information that has an effect on widespread human conduct. The the accumulation of knowledge, behaviors, and skills is known as cultural capital, this is also a social asset that advances social mobility (Lareau, 1987). To give a better understanding, things that fit such a criteria may consist of, schooling, dress style, reason, outward impression, and verbal accent. The influence that these things exert over a culture covers mass communication, friends, establishments, and family members. Change is exhibited in many ways including societal normalities, and viewpoints that influence the actual implementation of action. The African, Indian and Chinese societies actually share some of the same qualities and are also able to be contrasted as well as it relates to cultural alterations, law making, and widespread fiscal determinations.

India happens to be an extremely diverse religious country with many cultures living there and none of these differences has deterred their unionship. The Indian culture has greatly impacted the fiscal outcome and widespread way of living because of an incline in wise choices. This is largely attributed to the training of the Indians (Tenhunen, & Säävälä, 2012). There exists a great educational system in place within the Indian culture. Such system aids with the raising and instilling of morals and values, along with helping them develop the skill of great decision making. Also, in their culture, children are raised in a way that propels the probability of them being a accountable progressive adult. The way that they dress is multifarious and distinctive as it pertains to fashion. It exhibits the diversity of cultures within the country. These distinctive ways of living has undoubtedly been a influential force as it relates to the behavior of individuals and the widespread normalities of living. Also, more individuals are in stable jobs in India than China and Africa.

The continent of Africa is flourishing with countries being advanced, as well as so many different cultures and tribes. In Africa, the culture directly guides law making and fiscal behavior. For instance, education in Africa is progressively improving, individuals are realizing the importance of educating their familial construct in order to advance the future fiscal situation of the country. It has been asserted that the norms within the culture are able to impede the educational mutations. It requires much effort to terminate regressive societal normalities like female genitalia disfigurement. The dress code is an additional cultural capital that has a notable impact on the mutation of abilities into good beliefs that may be utilized to create more meaningful policies. Most African people have begun dressing in a more contemporary light. With the exception of those communities that still live in what is considered the wild. The quality of life in Africa is not adequate when equated to China and India, this is largely attributed to lack of gainful labor and destitution. The way that the young is raised in Africa has an immense impact on the temperament and the way that the generation behaves and make decisions once they become of age. Many traditional families in Africa determines the role of the female to be one which takes care of and raises the children. This may cause a distorted development of conduct that could also cause distasteful being.

China is the most populated country in the world. It has over 1billion people compared to 7 billion world population. Its economy is also one of the strongest in the world due to the use of modern technology in manufacturing of products. Because of that varied tribal, ethnic and racial population that is in one geographical place, there are various social and cultural aspects that influence the decision making, standards of living and general economic behavior of the country. According to Chu, G. C., & Ju, Y. (1993), various forms of cultural capital such as education and intellect among others has enabled

china to make public policies that helps the country to expand its global market of goods and services and thus creating a stronger economy.

Education and the role of parenting in shaping child education is lower in china compared to India though there are many intellects in china because they stress in gaining of knowledge and technical skills even using informal means of education. The behavior of Chinese people and their innovative skills is a product of the kind of parenting and social influence by close associates that cause the culture change that has helped drive the economic performance of the country. Chinese enjoys higher standards compared to Africans and the Indians due to the use of skills and intellect to improve their infrastructures and other social amenities.

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