Drivers of Food Waste

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In this study we identify the 20 drivers of food waste that are Cultural and Social Norms, Everyday routines and practices, Knowledge, Awareness, Values, Attitude, Planning, Lifestyle, Leftovers, Food Risk, Convenience, Household Constellation, Age, Portioning, Abundance, Packaging, Edible/inedible, Storage, Preferences and Infrastructure. We are going to write the literature of selected 11 drivers.

Cultural and Social Norms

Socio-culture characteristics may be allied to the likings of other family members and what do they think about an appropriate meal. (Cappellini, 2009) According to (Graham-Rowe, Jessop, & Sparks, 2015) How the daily life is scheduled and providing the leftovers quantity is compatible with the ‘good service provider’ / ‘good mother’ distinctiveness. To diminish levels of food waste among current cultural and social norms and values among individuals and materials and structural settings in the proficient world need to be told at the same time. In account on topic criteria, assume that social influence on consumer behavior is observed and contributes to strong intentions to take action. (Ajzen, 1991) Literature on social impacts believe that essential dissimilarities should be made between normative and expressive social norms. First point out what is considered globally permitted or prohibited action in culture, a collective faith in how it should be done, an action called ‘should’ standard. The latter normally addressed ‘is’ standard. (Cialdini, Reno, & Kallgren, 1990)

Everyday Routines and Practices

In the words of (Jackson & Viehoff, 2016) As the connotation of the family unit has changed in latest history, with the expanding support of women in day to day work life, so has the administration of food, with comfort picking up significance so as to save time. Consumers contend that what isn’t advantageous to do in a bustling regular daily existence won’t be done over the long period of time. (Hebrok & Boks, 2017) This is suggestive for the regularly expanding interest for accessibility in food provisioning. (Bava, Jaeger, & Park, 2008) Concurring to (Graham-Rowe, Jessop, & Sparks, 2014) Buyers are continually attempting to limit bother and professed constrictions. Also, the formation of abundance food has moved toward becoming regular within the interconnected routines of daily life. (D. M. Evans, 2014)


Study furthermore provide knowledge about what food kinds are most wasted – these are crisp foods grown from the ground, bread and other pastry kitchen products, and leftovers (Hebrok & Boks, 2017). Food practices are a part of day by day schedules, and individuals utilize intellectual alternate routes to get past the day generally effectively. (Brunori, Zoya, Elie, Lance, & Sébastien, 2011) According to (D. Evans, 2012) he finds that attitudes and deficiency of knowledge and abilities are not the needed issue for lessening food waste, and that condemning purchasers is unusable. (Lyndhurst, 2011) contends that how entities use date names is recurrently identified with their trust in their own knowledge and capabilities with food.


Most of shoppers are not attentive of the food they are wasting, and see food waste as inescapable and a minor unavoidable truth, and in that manner inevitable and hence satisfactory. (Lyndhurst, 2007) The impact of raising end user awareness about food waste is anyway bantered among analysts. A few examinations presume that awareness should be brought up in request to alter food wasting practices. (Quested et al., 2013) Awareness will grounds a sense of apprehension and guiltiness, which can impact practices in a manner that lessens food waste. (Grandhi & Appaiah Singh, 2016)


Plenty of food accessible at reasonable prices in developed countries impacts the value of the food and the food wastage. Shortages and increasing food prices will unavoidably lessen domestic food waste. (Aschemann-Witzel et al., 2015) Many studies are giving contradictory answers to the query of how earnings effects food waste. According to (Stuart, 2009) and (Parfitt, Barthel, & Macnaughton, 2010) High earnings families waste more food than families who earn less, because they have enough money for it and have a flawless link between the earnings used up for food and the quantity of food wasted. But there is indication of low earnings families also wasting a noteworthy volume of food (Porpino, Parente, & Wansink, 2015) and there is no substantial association between household earnings and attitudes to food waste. (Melbye, Onozaka, & Hansen, 2017) Low earnings families struggle for plenty of food because they do not want to be acknowledged as meager – food is seen as value (Porpino et al., 2015)


Attitude refers to a positive or negative assessment of a precise behavior of an individual. The cause of domestic food waste behavior is generally due to the attitude of the person.(Ghani et al., 2013) On the other hand, a positive ethical attitude has a better impact on food consumptions.(Arvola et al., 2008) Take part in awareness of sustainability, definite about product information, and consumer effects in cumulating consumer attitudes towards sustainable product procurements.(Vermeir & Verbeke, 2006) Intention to action is supported by: the attitude of an individual; the faith that a person important to the individual accept or rejects the behavior; establish control over the enactment of the behavior. The more constructive the attitude, the higher the social anticipations and individual actions, the more likely it is.(Ajzen, 1985) In particular, it was found that attitudes toward Ramadan intake vary greatly depending on socioeconomic characteristics. This means that aspects of Ramadan consumption may vary depending on demographic and socioeconomic levels, culture and precise routines. (Kadri et al., 2000)

(Torgler, Garcia-Valiñas, & Macintyre, 2008) noted the significance of gender and age swaying the environmental behavior and behavior of users. Consumer behavior and attitudes concerning food waste have also been explored (Owen, Seaman, & Prince, 2007) Religion can have emotional impact on consumer attitudes and behaviors, containing shopping decisions and eating practices. (Pettinger, Holdsworth, & Gerber, 2004)


A bustling way of life and a family with kids, experience considerable complications to plan their food, dinners, and supplies. This is distinguished as a noteworthy driver of consumer food waste. Yet, not just families with kids don’t meddle with the arrangement yet it is a general wonder among individuals. Older people make often the shopping lists than younger people. (Comber et al., 2013) There are the two types of consumers, organizers and improvisers; the individuals who plan tend to have a superior outline of the current stock and in this way abstain from buying more than needed. (Farr‐Wharton, Foth, & Choi, 2014) According to these studies, the main type of food waste behavior is: lack of shopping planning (Exodus, 2006), In-store behavior such as spontaneous shopping, presence of kids in want of pointless stuffs, placement of things in supermarkets. (Exodus, 2006)

Food expiration date tag (date or best) that are not easy to understand (Agency, 2008) Or simply misinterpreted. In particular, many studies show that if you do not checked your inventory of food at the pre-shopping period before you buy and make an appropriate shopping list, you will face food waste. (Exodus, 2006) (Chandon & Wansink, 2006) stated that if the person who is buying will check their needs of requirement before shopping they can evade underestimation of what they already have and will only buy what they really need while limiting or evading food waste. Moreover (Stefan, van Herpen, Tudoran, & Lähteenmäki, 2013) evidenced that procurement planning (e.g. Shopping list) and buying practices are important elements to avoid food waste.


Effects of irregular or sudden changeable busy lifestyles on food waste is a problem arises from numerous studies of food waste and users behaviors. (Bava et al., 2008) According to many studies, work and daily life activities can be thought perfect by eating balanced diet is the most important feature of food practice (Comber et al., 2013) Daily interference of eating is a foremost reason of food waste. This changes the new time interval between food and other everyday happenings. (D. Evans, 2012) According to (Lyndhurst, 2007) family who is not able to eat together at the same time, but at dissimilar times also become a reason of food waste. In todays’ life, time is often very short for busy life of individuals and many people are afraid that fast food is not healthy for them. That is a concern they mostly face when they try to take proper diet on their busy everyday routine. (Comber et al., 2013) In conclusion, food intake is to take good care for the individual himself and for those who are dear to you. (Watson & Meah, 2012)


Most of the time absence of planning, consequences in an amount or quantity beyond what is needed and resulted in cooking more food than needed. Most of the consumers are slightest aware of leftover food waste category. (Lyndhurst, 2007) Feeling loathing of leftovers is a problematic situation described by many researchers. (Watson & Meah, 2012) Conferring to (Vicki Mavrakis, 2014) The key motives for not eating the leftover food are sluggishness and protection from danger. People see the freezer as a way to evade repulsion, and freezer keep the limits between fresh food and rotten food, fit for human consumption and noxious, hygienic and unhygienic. Also, they see the repetition of hoarding leftovers in freezer as a sign of both waste and carefulness for the family. (Waitt & Phillips, 2016)

Many of the individuals in general are not good at storing and consumption of leftovers. They make a lot of food because they are not aware of how to share the food and they don’t bother it, also they are anxious particularly for guests, that the food will not be enough. (Vicki Mavrakis, 2014) Many buyers thinks that portioning the food is quite demanding. But some people make more food for the purpose of keeping leftover food in the freezer for the future use to save some time. Many individuals purchase too much food every week. Then they brawl to eat it all. The intention is that food amount bought for a particular meal is too enormous. (D. Evans, 2012) Leftover food is often stockpiled in the freezer after a meal time to defer any uneasy feelings caused by wasting it instantaneously. (Waitt & Phillips, 2016) Even still the objective to eat late, but food if you be unable to remember it in the freezer you can throw it in the dustbin later. When it goes spoiled and at that time it’s easier to throw it. (Hval, 2012)

Food Risk

There is a contradictory association between decreasing food risk and minimizing food waste. (Hebrok & Boks, 2017) As per (Neff, Spiker, & Truant, 2015) literature demonstrates that individuals have different ways of judging if food is as yet good for utilization. Expiry date labels and utilization of smell sense and optical decisions are the most drilled one practices. This research reveals that individuals who utilize the most elevated number of techniques to decide edibility will in general squander more food than those depending on just a couple of methodologies, for example optical decision and sense of smell. (Parizeau, von Massow, & Martin, 2015) A great many people know that various types of food presents numerous degrees of risk; meat is as always being high type of risk and vegetables are mostly low type of risk. Sustenance supervision in families is frequently controlled by feelings and awareness of other’s expectations to ‘give and ensure’. (Lyndhurst, 2007) In any case, maintaining a strategic distance from risk and guaranteeing food safety is a need over staying away from food waste. (D. Evans, 2011) Individuals would have a preference not to take risk of getting sick and preferably discard food that could be eatable than take that risk. (Graham-Rowe et al., 2014)


Increasing women’s contribution in daily working life because of the conversion in the households of the recent generation changed the history, food supervision and convenience is becoming progressively significant to save more time. (D. Evans, 2011) This demonstrates constantly growing demand for convenience in food supply. (Bava et al., 2008) At the present time consumers are working persistently to lessen inconvenience. (Graham-Rowe et al., 2014) Which became reason of commutation between ideals and convenience. Ideals such as possession of leftovers, minimizing the food risk, eating hale and hearty, being generous, planning, and variety of food. (Southerton & Yates, 2015)

Cite this paper

Drivers of Food Waste. (2021, Jan 18). Retrieved from https://samploon.com/drivers-of-food-waste/



What are the main causes of food waste?
The main causes of food waste include overproduction, expiration dates, and consumer behavior. Additionally, inadequate storage and transportation systems also contribute to food waste.
What are the top 3 types of food waste?
The top three types of food waste are bread, dairy, and produce.
What is the biggest contributor to food waste?
The biggest contributors to food waste are restaurants and grocery stores. They often throw away food that is still good because it doesn't look perfect or it's past the expiration date.
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