Depression: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

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Depression is that feeling that negatively affects the people, their feelings, their way of thinking, and their behavior through severe and long-term symptoms and signs, in addition to their influence in carrying out their daily activities and functions normally, as this feeling of sadness exceeds a few days that most people are exposed to. Depression is the most common mental disorder, and despite the spread of this disorder, there are many undiagnosed patients who hesitate to make a decision to see a doctor or psychologist, and this can be attributed to many reasons; some people may be ashamed of the idea of ​​diagnosing a mental disorder, Others may see their depression as a weakness in itself and not a real disease. Like many other dangerous mental illnesses such as, anxiety and schizophrenia, depression has types, symptoms, causes, effects. However, it has treatments that make people curable and treatable.

In fact, the types of depression differ between people who are diagnosed with it, according to the different symptoms and signs that appear on the person, in addition to the different causes. Michael Craig Miller, MD, The Assistant Professor of Psychiatry Harvard Medical School explains in a video entitled “Depression” that there are two broad categories, which doctors and psychologists call “major depression, and persistent depressive disorder”

He illustrates these categories by saying “Major depression is an illness that comes in episodes. And during each depressive episode of major depression, it must last at least two weeks for it to be defined as a major depressive episode.” And, “Persistent depressive disorder, or dysthymia as it used to be called, is a form of depression which may not be as intense as major depression. It can be mild or moderate. But it lasts a long time. And the symptoms are like the symptoms you’d see in major depression, but again, there’s slightly less intensity.” (Miller, 02:20 – 04:30).

The symptoms and signs that appear on a person with depression vary according to many factors: age, gender, and cultural background of the person with depression. For example, younger children may have difficulty expressing feelings of depression, in their case which the children find more irritable or complains about some physical symptoms. Adolescents may also have different kinds of symptoms, like not following the rules, regression in school, or and social isolation. It should be noted that depression is difficult to observe in older people, as it is usually believed that the symptoms that appear on them are due to age or other health disorders. According to “Depression symptoms: Study finds more Brits suffer from undiagnosed symptoms of depression” the symptoms of depression are summarized in ten symptoms. And they are “Continuous low mood or sadness, feeling hopeless and helpless, low self-esteem, feeling tearful, feeling guilt-ridden, irritability and intolerance of others, no motivation or interest in things, difficulty making decisions, no enjoyment out of life, feeling anxious or worried, thoughts of suicide or self-harm” (Doyle).

There are many common theories to explain what causes depression, and perhaps the most common of them are substances and chemical reactions in the brain. Except that there are millions or billions of chemicals in the body that can be responsible for a person’s mood, outlook, life, and related matters. There are many other factors that may be biological or external influences that may have a role in the likelihood of infecting people with depression. In the article “”Gene may be the cause of depression” it shows that a biological influence can be responsible of this mental illness. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, 20 million people suffer from depression in the United States. A study published in the Journal Nature shows that genes can be responsible of causing depression. Ronald Duman, a professor of psychiatry and pharmacology at Yale University and the study lead author, found that the gene MKP-1 “could be a primary cause” of the condition. The researchers came to this conclusion after noticing genome scans on “tissue samples of 21 deceased people who had been diagnosed with depression.” They compared these samples (people with depression samples) to samples of people who did not have depression, and the researchers found that the gene MKP-1 was present in double quantities. In an experiment on mice, “they used gene transfer technology to give mice a greater expression of the gene,” Automatically, the mice reacted expectedly and “displayed typical depressive behavior seen in animals suffering from chronic stress.” In another experiment on mice, raised without the MKP-1 gene, these mice showed the ability to resile the stress.

According to Duman, “What the MKP-1 gene does, is shut down a pathway in the brain necessary for neurons to function properly. The breakdown of the pathway has previously been shown to be a factor in depression.” So, after finding the gene that causes depression, scientists are trying to find medications that can prevent MKP-1. In another opinion about what causes depression, “the daily telegraph” shares that, sex can be a cause. This newspaper clarifies that girls who are sexually active from a young age are more likely to suffer from depression than those girls who are virgin. “Academics found that teenage sex leaves many girls with feelings of guilt and low self-esteem.” According to this newspaper, more than 14,000 US teens have been studied, age between 14 and 17, and the researches said that these teens start to have the feeling of being depressed because of their sexual activities instead of outside influences. Surprisingly, “The study found boys’ mental health in the same age group did not correlate with sexual activity.” This article shows one of the causes that can cause depression in an important layer of society, which are teenagers.

Treatment for depression depends mainly on the severity of the infection. If a low-intensity depression is diagnosed, the doctor may recommend waiting for at least two weeks and monitoring whether the patient may improve, and studies have shown the effectiveness of exercise in alleviating depression. Having a dialogue with a relative, friends, or specialists about the nature of the feelings, it can help to get rid of depression, and in the event of depression low to medium severity, behavioral and talking therapies are usually recommended. According to “Depression Treatments: CBT can be used as an effective depression treatment” cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) which teaches skills for identifying and modifying dysfunctional thoughts, feelings and behaviors is the leading evidence-based treatment for depression. Dr John Kearney who is the director of Psychology services at Wesley Hospital Kogarah, supports the CBT and believes that it is an effective treatment for depression. He found and announced six ways that make cognitive behavior therapy help in treating major depressive disorder. He concluded that these ways are “Develop new ways to manage unhelpful and negative thoughts pattern, restore activity levels, master relaxation techniques, reduce Insomnia, increase your problem-solving ability, and make improvements to your lifestyle especially to your physical activity and nutrition.”

In a conclusion, Depression usually makes it a difficult practice to lead a normal life, but there are many tips that can be followed by alleviating the effect of depression on a person’s life. Talking with a friend, relative, professional, or group of people who care and may make some changes to their sleep methods. It is very important to see a doctor if experiencing persistent symptoms of depression, because of this complication of the patient: as a negative impact on the lifestyle, and increase the thinking about suicide, and a person’s health condition in the event that he suffers from other disorders and chronic diseases.

Works Cited

  1. “Depression Treatments: CBT can be used as an Effective Depression Treatment.” Sunshine Coast Daily, Jun 17, 2019. ProQuest, https://login.proxy055.nclive.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/2241328414?accountid=10616.
  2. “Depression.” , directed by Anonymous , produced by Michael Craig Miller. , Harvard Health Publications, 2017. ProQuest, https://login.proxy055.nclive.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/2007105551?accountid=10616.
  3. “Sex Causes Depression.” The Daily Telegraph, Sep 22, 2008, pp. 13. ProQuest, https://login.proxy055.nclive.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/359904085?accountid=10616.
  4. Doyle, Liam. “Depression Symptoms: Study Finds More Brits Suffer from Undiagnosed Symptoms of Depression.” Express (Online), Aug 01, 2019. ProQuest, https://login.proxy055.nclive.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/2267576239?accountid=10616.
  5. Weir, William. “Gene may be the cause of depression” Study finds; gene may be the cause of depression, study finds.” South Florida Sun – Sentinel, Oct 19, 2010. ProQuest, https://login.proxy055.nclive.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/758980143?accountid=10616.

Cite this paper

Depression: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment. (2020, Oct 31). Retrieved from https://samploon.com/depression-symptoms-causes-and-treatment/



What are 10 major causes of depression?
Causes - Clinical depression Stressful events. Most people take time to come to terms with stressful events, such as bereavement or a relationship breakdown. Personality. Family history. Giving birth. Loneliness. Alcohol and drugs. Illness.
What are the 4 main causes of depression?
The four main causes of depression are: genetics, biology, environment, and psychology.
What are the top 5 causes of depression?
The top 5 causes of depression are: 1) Genetic disposition 2) Life events (such as bereavement, job loss, financial difficulties) 3) Childhood trauma 4) Social isolation 5) Substance abuse
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