In America there is a number of ways the people characterize themselves politically, typically they identify as a political party. As we know, U.S government is dominated by two party system that is a Democratic party (liberal) and the Republican party (conservatives). Both parties have their own ideologies which explain the position that each party takes on the policy issue. But it doesn’t mean that every individual in democratic have a stereotypical liberal view on every major issue and republican have stereotypical conservatives view on the issue. We all are individual and many of us has a different opinion on different issues.
There are several social issues where party’s lawmaking views contrast. Some of these are abortion, guns, affirmative action etc. If we talk about the abortion, liberal view this as the right of women to choose as its part of their body means they label themselves as pro-choice and conservatives on other hand view it as life issue and label themselves as pro-life. Another is right to the gun where conservatives support pro-gun rights where liberal wants the law to control gun bearing. Democratic views there are racial issues in society and they are in favor of affirmative action whereas conservatives are against it. These are some contrasting position where voters are divided into several groups. Here, pro-gun will side themselves as conservatives and minority racial and ethnic will support liberal. And it is more likely that women tend to side with liberal as they protect abortion right.
Another major social lawmaking contrast on Medicare and health care policy which has been a major debatable issue. On 2010 president Obama makes Obama care plan which focuses on two major issue controlling cost and expanding coverage which was resisted by Republicans of government control of healthcare plan, insisting it threatens the individual choice of treatment and doctors. Thus, it is continuously debated social issue where Americans are divided along party line in their views of healthcare systems.
Now if we look at economic issues it includes tax, fiscal, and monetary policies. The US federal tax policy is based on a progressive principle which is a higher tax rate for higher income. Liberals tend to favor higher taxation as they believe the government has the responsibility to fix many social issues and should invest tax in social welfare but conservatives’ beliefs cutting tax is best for country economic growth as a wealthier citizen will have more money to form new business creating several job opportunities to other. Fiscal and monetary policies describe spending and regulation of the federal economy. Here again, liberals are ok for spending money on a social issue like social insurance, Medicare and healthcare, and favor monetary policies but conservatives believe spending should be limited except military and are against mandatory policy as they believe it hinders business, economic growth. This contrast views on economic issue divide party coalition as wealthier, business-oriented side with conservative party and majority working class tend towards liberal.
Here, talking about foreign policy, it refers to international relation strategies applied by the national government in pursuit of its national interest. On foreign policy the national defense, military law issues where party’s ideology contrast. Liberal views too much spending on military and nuclear power is a con for the foreign relation as other countries view America as a threat. So, the majority of them believe country only should have only basic military power and nuclear spending should be lessened. But on other hand majority conservatives believes military and defense power is must priority and country must have strong military power. Conservatives argue we should learn from history and make self-prepared for any situation. They also make the point that having a strong military, it is less likely to use them as nobody wants to mess with such power. This contrast believes also formed parties’ groups and divide them as liberals or conservatives.
- Patterson, Thomas E. We the people: an introduction to American Government. 12th ed. McGraw- Hill Education, 2015.