Fonagy, Steele and Steele (1992) assessed the development of resilience against the transgenerational replication of disadvantage through the acquisition of a reflective self function, in the frame work of attachment theory. Data suggest that reflective self function was most consistent in pinpointing resilient mothers and showed a potential to account for the predictive power of some other protective factors.
Reyes and Jason (1993) conducted a study to understand successful high school students in city school which is a high-risk environment. Two groups of students were identified as being either at low or high risk for dropping out of school. All students were giving information about a similar socioeconomic status, parent-student involvement, and parental supervision. Researcher found that the low risk students reported strong resiliency, a quality that the high risk students were significantly lacking.
Waxman and Huang (1997) examined inner-city students in the south-central United States. Researcher found that students who ranked in the 90th percentile on the standardized tests in mathematics were highly resilient, reporting significantly higher levels of task orientation and satisfaction, social self-concept, and academic self-concept achievement motivation.
Jew, Green and Kroger (1999) studied the relationship between resilience and coping. The sample size for current research was 392 students of 7-12 grades. Their analysis revealed that students scoring high on resilience were more likely to have better academic skills, competence and coping skills than their less resilient peers.
Scales et al. (2003) conducted a longitudinal study on resilience. Researcher found that higher levels of resilience traits are strongly correlated with higher grade point averages among middle and high school students. The students who reported more resilience characteristics early in the study had higher grade point averages GPAs even three years later, compared to students with fewer assets at the start.
Hanson &Austin (2003) have done a long-term study on a set of students in California and found that nearly every measure of resilience was positively related to concurrent test scores. Those students reported high levels of resilience they were high in test score occurred in school. Academic achievement has also been treated as an outcome variable in previous resilience.
Dass-Brailsford (2005) conducted a research on black youths in South Africa. These youths were experiencing the adversity of poverty. Nevertheless, they achieved high academic results. All the individuals seemed to be resilient; therefore the study suggested that there was a relationship between resilience and academic success.
Rajendran & Videka (2006) assessed the components of resilience in adolescents. Sample size taken by reseracher in this study was 816. Their age range was 11-17 years. Who were referred to the child welfare system for maltreatment? Social competence, academic achievement, and a sense of relatedness to a caregiver were fit in a structural equation model as components of latent resilience. Social competence and the quality of relationship with a caregiver were strongly linked to latent resilience. Academic achievement was also found to be correlated with resilience
Academic achievement has also been treated as an outcome variable in previous resilience studies (Gorman-Smith & Tolman, 2003; Owens & Shaw, 2003). The 68 boundaries between what constitutes a stressor, a resource and an outcome variable in research on adaptation have not always been clear.
Sarwar, Inamullah, Khan & Anwar (2010) examined the relationship between resilience and academic achievement of secondary level students of Gujranwala, Pakistan. A Resilience scale was used to collect data. The sample size was 127 secondary students, in those 52 boys and 75 girls. The results revealed that there was no association between resilience and achievement as measured through marks obtained in 10th grade. The boys were found to be more resilient than girls at the secondary level in Pakistan.
Deb & Arora (2012) examined resilience in adolescents preparing for Engineering and Medical CET. The results show that individuals reporting high resilience showed better academic performance as compared to those perceiving themselves to be low on resilience. Male participants scored higher on resilience and performed better in competitive examinations than female participant did. A major conclusion of this study was the chances of high resilience adolescents being successful in competitive examinations were found to be 120% greater than that of low resilience adolescents.