Maternal Nutrition during and after Pregnancy

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The maternal stage time is one of the most important stages in the life span of the human life. The maternal stages are vital stages because it is the opening to the beginning of a new life, which includes the process of a human life developing and growing. The Maternal stage takes place during pregnancy but also a short time after birth. In order to maintain a healthy pregnancy, it is crucial that females follow a routine that includes vitamins and supplements, while in the maternal stage of a pregnancy.

A natural pregnancy begins once a non-fertile ovum becomes fertilized with sperm. It takes eight to fourteen days to be implanted in the endometrium. Four weeks after after the ovum has been fertilized , it becomes an embryo. Week number two to week number eight are the most Curial time period during the pregnancy. Week two to eight is the most critical period during the pregnancy.

The pregnancy beings with the Blastogenic stage, which are the first two weeks.. During this stage cells differentiate into the fetus and placenta. Following the Blastogenic stage is the Embryonic stage, which occurs during weeks two to eight. During this time the organ system begins to develop along with the central nervous system . At this point in time the fetus begins to grow ears, eyes, arms, legs, and its heart. Lastly the concluding stage is the Fetal stage, which takes place between weeks nine until birth. During this stage the fetus continues to grow.

Since now the female body is carrying around another life inside, the body will start to go through some changes, and will need more support from one. The mother must be sure to maintain a healthy weight. Low weight or a high weight may lead to pour outcomes for the mother and the fetus. A normal mother during pregnancy will gain an average of twenty-five to thirty-five pounds during the pregnancy.

Also, this is a very important time the mother should not diet! A mother who is a teen, under weight or is carrying more than one fetus is recommended to gain more weight. And mothers who are obese and overweight are recomended to gain less weight during their pregnancy.

To make sure to lead for the best outcomes during a pregnancy, the mother must cut out substance use into her life style. Beginning with Tobacco, tobacco must not be used during the pregnancy and cut out prior to the pregnancy as well. Tobacco increases risk for miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. Alcohol is another substance that must be cut out as well. Alcohol increases risk for fetal alcohol syndrome, physical and mental defects, and growth retardation. Also, alcohol has no known safe threshold for alcohol use. The substance, that carry’s the most risk and defects are drugs.

Drugs increase risk for low birth weight, preterm delivery, miscarriage, birth defects, and infant addiction. Also, can lead to physical abnormalities similar to those cause by fetal alcohol syndrome. Also, herbal supplements are not recommended during a pregnancy. The mother should limit herself to 300 milligrams of caffeine per day.

Many things also go into consideration for a healthy pregnancy. Which leads the mother to consume 400 to 800 micrograms of synthetic folic acid per day. Which will reduce the risk of fetal neural tube defect. Also, will need to make sure mother is getting a well-balanced diet for nutrition towards the fetus and the mother. A well-balanced diet varies from additional serving of grain, vegetable, fruit, and low-fat milk.

During pregnancy the mother needs energy increase to support the fetus and the placenta. As well an increase workload on the mother’s heart and lungs. Protein is going to be needed to be increased as well. Extra protein is needed for synthesis of new maternal, placental, and fetal tissues. A macronutrient that is important is Fat. Fat is needed to fuel the mother and development of placenta. Also stored fat supports breastfeeding. Carbohydrates are important because they are fiber rich and are a main source of extra calories.

During the time of pregnancy, vitamins and minerals will be needed to be increased. This will help support growth and development. Iron and folate will be the higher increase. Extra iron is needed to support additional red blood cells, the placenta and the growing fetus. Also, the extra iron prepares your body for any blood loss that may occur during the delivery. Folic acid is a pregnancy super hero! It is known as that to some people because it can help prevent birth defects of your baby’s brain and spinal cord. Also increased needs of vitamins A, B, and C are important. Vitamin A is important for your baby’s embryonic growth, including the development of the heart, lung, kidneys, eyes, and bones. But study show a large amount of Vitamin A consumed can be dangerous and has been linked to lead to birth defects.

Pregnancy cause many things to change throughout the body and can comes with many more things as well. For example, pregnancy does cause gastrointestinal distress. The most common gastrointestinal distress are morning sickness, heartburn and constipation. But the mother can reduce morning sickness by eating dry cereal, toast, crackers before getting out of bed. You can also reduce constipation by making sure to eat and drink plenty of fiber and fluids. Getting regular to moderate exercise has been shown to help reduce constipation as well. Mothers can also reduce the amount of heartburn, by sitting up for an hour after eating, and also eating smaller amounts, but eating more frequently to make sure you are still in that well-balanced diet.

A very important stage of the maternal stage is once the baby is now a new born. One of the most important things is breastfeeding. There are many debates in breastfeeding on how long to do it, and when to stop. But there is a goal for the year of 2020, to increase the percentage of new born to be breastfeed. The current goal is to raise that number up to an 82 percent status. The mother needs 330 kcal a day for the first six months, and then will need 400kcal during the second six months. Breastfeeding does take a lot of energy of the body, and the mother is still expected to take care of her body.

Vitamins during this time generally stay the same as they were during the pregnancy but can differ. For example, Vitamins D and K stay the same, and Iron and Folate needs lower than they were during pregnancy. One thing that is extremely important all the time is water, and epically during this stage. The mother should at least consume 3.8 litters of water per day, that is the minimum of water that is needed and if possible should consume more.

The mother should be ranging around 2,200 to 2,800 calories a day during the breastfeeding time, it is the same number of calories she would consume during her pregnancy. Also, the infant benefits a lot from breastfeeding for example, it is optimal nutrition, it also protects infants from infections and diseases.

Last stage in the maternal stage is infancy. There are many markers to make sure your infant is healthy and is in good ranges. So, we have growth, which is the best marker for nutritional status. Also, the infant should double its birth weight by four to six months. And triple birth weight by twelve months. Another important is the length should be doubled by twelve months. Key vitamins and minerals during this time are Vitamin D, Vitamin K, Vitamin B 12, Iron, and Fluoride. Breastfeeding should occur every two to three hours and a total of eight to twelve feedings per day.

A baby is seen as many different things for everyone. But pregnancy is something that is very important and should be taken very seriously. The decisions that are now being taken by the mother will not just now affect her it will be affecting a whole new life. So, if a healthy pregnancy is what you are going for, please make sure to follow your doctor’s orders, and make sure you are getting the correct number of vitamins and minerals. Many things go into a pregnancy, which can lead to bad unhealthy outcomes or it can lead to good health outcomes.

Citation Page

  1. Rinzler, C. A. (2016). Nutrition For Dummies, 6th Edition. John Wiley & Sons.
  2. Morrison, J. L., & Regnault, T. R. (2016, June 04). Nutrition in Pregnancy: Optimising Maternal Diet and Fetal Adaptations to Altered Nutrient Supply. Retrieved September 25, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4924183/


Cite this paper

Maternal Nutrition during and after Pregnancy. (2021, May 27). Retrieved from https://samploon.com/maternal-nutrition-during-and-after-pregnancy/

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