Since euthanasia is a society matter, we should educate ourselves on these affairs connected to euthanasia. Through the searches found listed in this paper, without a doubt I believe if one is capable of deciding to euthanize because of unmanageable pain and suffering, they should be allowed by law to end their life legally.
Gamble, Nathan. Ethics & Medicine: An International Journal of Bioethics. Summer, 2018, vol.34 Issue 2 , p103.9p.
This journal expresses that medical assistance in dying, (MAiD) as Canada calls it, has produced disputes attesting to euthanasia as a hopeful, preferable medical choice rather than suffering in life. Science has yet to prove that euthanasia is far better than suffering. This journal is an essential source of information on euthanasia and why it should be the persons right to choose euthanasia in place of suffering.
Pereira, J. Legalize euthanasia or Assisted Suicide: The illusion of safeguards and controls. MBChB MSC cur. On col. 2011 Apr., 18(2) : e38-e45.PMCID: PMC 3070710
This paper states euthanasia or assisted suicide, sometimes both, have been legalized in a small percentage of countries. States with laws, safety, and preventive measures deter abuse and misuse of these approaches. In prevention, one must give permission, report all euthanization cases and is performed only by a doctor while a consult with a second physician to approve it. This paper states that laws and safeguards are more often ignored and without indictment. In 1900 cases, 900 did not give permission to be euthanized, or PAS and 50 percent of these are not even reported!
In the Netherlands, for example, anyone tired of living or over 70 years old could be given the choice of euthanasia or PAS. This paper is an important source because it has information that states euthanization /PAS is performed even without consent and reporting of the event. The reasoning behind the legalizing with laws, safety, and preventions are to eliminate the chances of performing euthanizations and or PAS without consent and allow doctors not to be held accountable.
Tolle, Susan W., MD, Teno, Joan, M. Lessons from Oregon in
Embracing Complexity in End-of-Life-Care.
This study talks about Oregon, the second largest state to legalize euthanization. Considered the best U.S. state to die in, Oregon’s terminally ill persons are less likely to enter hospice services in their home or be hospitalized than in the rest of the U.S. In 2013, two-thirds of persons living in Oregon, died at home with ninety-seven percent using the Death with Dignity Act dying at home. Linking patients end-of-life care decisions to affirmative care plans as well as state regulations, are critical.
The educating of Oregonians raises their level of understanding end-of-life options, while home hospice allows patients to die in their bed and not in a hospital. This article is significant to this paper because it lists what is essential, and in what order a human makes the final decision to live or die when suffering and pain is all that’s left. It also allows doctors and health personnel to be free from vindication in courtsas it is legal by law. It has worked in Oregon, it could work everywhere, and a person should have the right to choose to die or live in this situation.
New Scientist. 12/9/17. Euthanasia Bill. Vol.236. Issue 3155. P.6-6, ¼ p. DOI:10.1016/s0262-4079 (17) 32374-6.
This article shares information from a Victoria, Australia legalization bill passing Voluntary Assisted Dying. It states any terminally ill person, over 18 may request a lethal drug to die. After 100 plus hours of debate, it allows these persons the compassion and dignity they earned at death. A medical assessment would be needed to assess if they are terminally ill with death occurring within six months or less and expected to give themselves the fatal dose unless unable to. This article is an essential source for the paper because Australia believes that a terminally ill person with six months or less left should be allowed to die by giving themselves a legal lethal drug to end their life.
Emanuel. E.J. Daniels, E.R., Fairclough, D.L., Clarridge, B.R. The Practice of Euthanasia and Physicians Assisted Suicide in the United States: Adherence To Proposed Safeguards and Efforts on Physicians. JAMA. 1998: 280 (6): 507-513. Doi:10.1001/jama.280.6.507
This abstract that author Emanuel talks about includes huge arguments of making euthanasia legal. There are a few euthanasias and Physician-Assisted Suicide(PAS) cases in the United States. One interview showed 355 oncologists with 56 taking part in euthanasia or PAS; twenty-three patients repeatedly requested euthanasia or PAS as compared to 6 patients not active in either decision and in 28 cases, the families agreed with the patient’s decision. In review, 19 oncologists were comforted by helping a terminally ill patient with euthanasia or PAS, nine regretted getting involved in it, and 15 feared prosecution. The doctors in this situation usually decide in favor of euthanasia or PAS when poor bodily functioning or untreatable pain and suffering is present. This abstract is an important source for this paper because it shows that even some doctors have compassion when a patient is suffering and is terminally ill with an unlivable life.
Kendro, W. (2009). Quebec College of Physicians issues qualified endorsement of euthanasia inexceptional circumstances. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal. 181 (12). E294.
This article by author, Kendro states that suggestions to the criminal code of Canada should allow terminally ill patients to use euthanization if they are terminally ill and in severe pain and suffering. This information from this article source is essential to this paper because it shows that humans have the right to choose euthanasia if terminally ill to eliminate unnecessary pain and suffering and if the quality of life is affected by the pain and suffering.
Goldberg, R.T. (1987). The Right To Die: The Case For and Against Voluntary Passive Euthanasia, Disability, Handicap & Society, 2:1 21-39, DOI: 10.1080/026744648766780031
This article talks about the extent of the existence of human life by technology and enhanced life support systems, which renewed the argument on individuals right to use euthanization to die. The author, Goldberg, suggests that euthanization should be considered for those people who can make rational decisions about euthanasia. The article is hugely important to my paper because it reinforces the importance of educating all members of this person’s family and allows for the decision of who is and is not a candidate for this.
Emanuel, E.J. What is the Great Benefit of Legalizing Euthanasia of Physician-Assisted Suicide? Ethics. 109.3 (1999). 629-642.
The author, Emanuel, acknowledges the favorable, constructive impact that euthanasia has on a terminally ill person, including a patient’s freedom to choose euthanasia, the positive effects in reducing pain and suffering as well as emotions which run high, allowing this to be a positive reinforcement for the terminally ill person.
DiBiase, John K. National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly. Autumn, 2017, vol.17 Issue 3, p. 417-424. 8 p.
This article talks about euthanasia based on patients decisions, and their quality of life evaluations and the person’s quality of life has worsened enough to make death by euthanasia a positive choice. This article is an essential source for the paper because it shows that it should be the person’s right to euthanize themselves when their quality of life is not worth living.
Cooper, C. (2007 December 12). An Assisted Death is a Right for all. Pulse, 20-21. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
The author, Cooper, believes terminally ill people have a right to die in an honorable way if in pain and suffering. The Assisted Dying for the Terminally ILL Bill should be approved to end a life of excruciating pain and suffering and allow them to be honored in their euthanasia choice. This source is good for my paper because it states that terminally ill people should have a right to end the pain and suffering if it makes life unbearable.
Wasserman, Jason, Claire, Jeffrey, Michael, Ritchey, Ferris. J. Omega; Journal of Death & Dying: 2005/2006.Vol 52. Issue 3. P 263-287.25 p.
This article study was done to examine racial differences in attitudes about euthanasia and test earlier disputes of African American skepticism and mistrust of medicine, which concludes negative attitudes about euthanasia. This article is good for my paper because it shows mistrust in medication in the African American population and if left uneducated about euthanasia and medicine, will cause a bias on euthanasia.
Chan, L, & Lien, D. (2010 December). The Value of Planned Death. Socio-Economics, 39 (6), 692-695. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
The authors, L.Chan and D. Lien, convey their perspectives on how medical cost might be the top reason the terminally ill would decide to euthanize if unable to pay to combat pain and suffering. The authors believe that if more funds were available to help pay for pain and suffering, fewer euthanasia choices would be made. This article is a good source as it shows that there might be less euthanasia and less pain and suffering if funds were available to pay for these issues.
- Chan, L. & Lien, D. (2010 December). The Value of Planned Death. Socio-Economics, 39 (6). 692-695. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
- Cooper, C. (2007 December 12). An Assisted Death is a Right for all. Pulse, 20-21. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
DiBiase, John K. National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly. Autumn 2017. Vo.17. Issue 3. P. 417-424. 8p.
- Emanuel, E.J. What is the Great Benefit of Legalizing Euthanasia of Physician Suicide? Ethics. 109.3 (1999). 629-642.
- Emanuel, E.J., Daniels, E.R., Fairclough, D.L., Clarridge, B.R. The Practice if Euthanasia and Physicians Assisted Suicide in the United States: Adherence To Proposed Safeguards and Efforts on Physicians. JAMA. 1998: 280 (6); 507-513. Doi: 10.1001/jama.280.6.507.
- Gamble, Nathan. Ethics & Medicine: An International Journal of Bioethics. Summer 2018. Vol.34. Issue 2. P 103. 9p.
- Goldberg, R.T. (1987). The Right To Die: The Case For and Against Voluntary Passive Euthanasia, Disability, Handicap & Society. 2:1. 21-39. DOI: 10.1080/026744648766780031
- Kendro, W. (2009). Quebec College of Physicians issues qualified endorsement of euthanasia in exceptional circumstances. CMAJ; Canadian Medical Association Journal. 181 (12). E294.
New Scientist. 12/9/17. Euthanasia Bill. Vol. 236. Issue 3155. P.6-6. ¾ p. Doi; 10.1016/s0262-4079 (17) 32374-6.
- Pereira, J. Legalize euthanasia or Assisted Suicide: The illusion of Safeguards and Controls. MBChB. MSC cur. On Col. 2011 Apr 18. (2) : e38-e45. PMCID: PMC 3070710.
- Tolle, Susan W., MD, Teno, Joan, M. Lessons from Oregon in Embracing Complexity in End-of-Life-Care.
- Wasserman, Jason, Clair, Jeffrey, Ritchey, Michael, Ferris J. Omega: Journal of Death & Dying: 2005/2006. Vol 52. Issue 3. P 263-287. 25 p.