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What is finance?
Finance (in English finance, from Latin financia – income, cash) – a system of economic relations in the process of which occurs the formation, distribution and use of centralized and decentralized funds of money in order to perform the tasks and functions of the state.
Finance as a historical category
As a historical category, finance emerged simultaneously with the emergence of the state at the division of society into classes.
In times of primitive communal system there were no classes, there was no state. Further, in conditions of slave-holding and feudalism finances played an insignificant role in formation of monetary incomes of the state. The main types of state revenues at that time were tribute, robbery of subjugated peoples, in-kind taxes, etc. At the same time there were no distinctions between the resources of the state and its head, monarchs disposed of the country’s funds as their own. Only with the allocation of the state treasury and its separation from the property of the monarch (16-17 centuries) emerged the concepts: public finances, state budget, state credit.
Public finance served as a powerful lever for the initial accumulation of capital in the 16th-18th centuries. Enormous wealth flowed from colonial countries to the metropolis, which could be used as capital at any time.
The public finances of the capitalist countries were characterized by a rapid increase in expenditure, primarily due to the increasing militarization of the economy. At the end of the 19th century, more than two-thirds of public expenditures were devoted to this purpose. The same picture of finances developed after World War II. A jump in public spending usually occurs in the years of wars.
In capitalist countries, at the expense of public finances, the nuclear industry was created, the public sector of the economy increased sharply, spending on scientific and technological progress (STP) increased, etc. New expenditures appeared for environmental protection, subsidies and loans to developing countries.
After World War II, the sphere of financial relations also sharply expanded. Local (regional) finances, extra-budgetary special governmental funds and finances of state-owned enterprises were developed.
The essence of finance
The essence of finance characterizes financial relations, which express the process of distribution and redistribution of the value of the social product on the basis of which monetary funds of social reproduction are formed. These include:
entrepreneurs owning capital invested in the sphere of production, sale of goods and services;
able-bodied people engaged in hired labor;
the state, which owns natural resources and regulates the economy on a national scale.
There are two spheres of financial and monetary relations:
Centralized – these are monetary relations associated with the formation and use of monetary funds of the state (state budget, state credit, extra-budgetary funds, etc.).
Decentralized – the finances of enterprises of all forms of ownership.
Centralized and decentralized funds of money are organically interrelated.
The subjects of financial relations, between which the financial flows are formed, are:
- Enterprises, entrepreneurs;
- The working population;
- The state.
- The scale and intensity of financial relations depend on the economic activity of economic entities and the population, the social policy of the state, etc. The value form of movement of goods generates a monetary turnover. This is the essence of finance.
The totality of financial relations in which funds of money are formed and used.
The totality of measures for the use of financial relations for the performance of tasks and functions.
Finances of commercial organizations
Represents economic relations arising during the formation of production funds of production and sale of products, the formation of their own resources, attracting external sources of funding, their distribution and use.
Monetary relations are associated with the formation, distribution and use of funds.
Topics and ideas for finance
- Determinants of Dividend Payout Ratio
- Ways to Overcome the Financial Crisis in the UK
- International Finance Transactions: a Critical Appraisal and Evaluation of the Practical and Legal Methods for Transferring Loans In a Syndicated Loan Participation Agreement
- The Financial Impact of Student Debt on Working and Retired Americans
- The Historical Impact of Hamiltonian Economics
- Impact of Privatization on Profitability and Capital Employment of State-Owned Enterprises in the United States
- The Role of Foreign Institutional Investor in Developing Domestic Firms
- Ways to overcome financial crisis
- Issues on global currencies
- Banking systems in your respective country
- E-commerce on Internet Commerce and Stock Market Crises Review
- Case Study on Costing
- What are Bonds?
- Discuss the difference between traditional finance and behavioral finance.
- Study on the impact of budgetary controls on the performance of an organization study.
- Critical analysis on the use of financial statements in assessing the performance of an organization.
- Ethical Aspects of the Financial Crisis
- Impact of Macroeconomics on The Global Stock Market
- Using Credit Lines in Managing Corporate Liquidity
- The Role of Innovative Management Performance on Corporate Financial Returns
- Importance of the Banking Sector on the Growth of a Nation
- Review and Importance of Margin Financing
- Using Macroeconomics to Predict Bankruptcy
- Capital Structure and Corporate Strategizing
- Investment analysis of a company of your choice.
- A detailed report on working capital management.
- Finance as a tool that regulates the economics.
- The role of financial markets in mobilization and distribution of financial resources.
- The finance management in the United States and factors that can make it perfect.
- Finance in join-stock companies.
- Constant growth in productivity is an effect of accounting software
- Finance management is transforming and technology is a big cause
Videos about Finance
- 1. Introduction, Financial Terms and Concepts
2. William Ackman: Everything You Need to Know About Finance and Investing in Under an Hour | Big Think
3. Financial Education | The 4 Rules Of Being Financially Literate
Interesting infographics about Finance
1. Spending percentage in US for 2019 year
2. Some financial facts
3. First bank